INTRODUCTION:Menstrual problems are the major gynaecological problems which occur frequently in majority ofwomen. Menstrual problemsaffect the physiology, psychology and well-being of a woman. By knowing whattype of symptoms and when to expectsymptoms, help women to schedule her activities. The problems may be due toheredity or hormonal imbalance.The menstrual cycle is the monthly physiological change that occurs inwoman who attained menarche. Normal menstrual cycleis maintained by both endocrine and reproductive system.
The menstrual cyclecan be divided into several phases namely menstrualphase, follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase.Menstruation is the physiologicshedding of endometrium. It is also called menstrual bleeding or menses, periodsor catamenia. Follicularphase, also called proliferative phase during which the ovarian follicles arestimulated to mature. The maturedfollicle is called Graafian follicle, which undergoes changes to form ovum.
Ovulation is a process in which the ovum is releasedfrom the ovary. Luteal phase is also called secretary phase, during which thecorpus luteum is formed. It secrets severalhormones.The menstrual problems are notalways problems but bodily reactions to various changes inside. Most of the women have some symptoms or a combination of a few orall of them, which may be either physical or emotional. The most commonexternal symptoms of menstrual period are acne.
It can be on the face or on anyother part of the body and can be bothersome fora week before the periods. They feel disinterested and tired 3 days before(PMS) and during the periods. Insomnia or change in appetite is also a part ofmenstrual cycle.Some women experiences back ache,headache or abdominal pain during their menstrual cycle. Joint pain or musclepain also occurs to somewomen.
Pain around the breasts, swelling, soreness or heaviness also occursduring menstruation. Abdominal cramps are the worst among the menstrual painsthat really bother all activities. These are caused by the involuntary contraction of the uterinemuscles. Women tend to have mood swing, anxiety, depression or aggression alongwith physical stressduring those days.According to the abnormality of themenstrual cycle, they are classified asMenorrhagia – It is a heavy andprolonged periods, i.
e. the bleeding which continues above 8 days.Metrorrhagia – Irregular timing ofthe menstrual periods usually more frequent.Menometrorrhagia – Irregular,frequent periods with heavy bleeding.Oligomenorrhea – Less than 8periods a year, or the cycle coming less frequent than every 35 days.Dysmenorrhea – Painful periods i.e.periods with severe abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea or heavy blood loss may co– exists.Amenorrhea – Absence of periods.Euromenorrhea – Menstrual cyclethat has no abnormalities of flow, timing or pain.By reviewing the literature onthese aspects, it was found that in last two decades many surveys were carriedout on the prevalence of menstrual problems in various parts of the world 1-6.