Introduction: media coverage.[4]• Least marginal cost of online

                                 Introduction: In this Modernera, cybercrime has become a buzzword. Actually, Cybercrime means illegal activity throughcomputer or related devices as a tool and the internet as a connection in orderto reach a variety of objectives .1Hackers were first started cybercrimeby trying to break into computer networks.1 Some of them had done it only forthe thrill of accessing high-level security networks, but others for sought togain many sensitive, classified and secret materials.

1 Criminals started toinfect computer networking systems with viruses that leads to breakdownson  business as well as personalcomputers.1 Nowadays, hackers and other criminals in thevirtual world are always trying to get the most sensitive and secret data &information at least amount cost by viruses and also other types of malicioussoft-wares.2Infact, the Internet is the largestchain of computer network that are connected together which had a great impactto connect us globally by allowing the transmission of information, messages,and data 2.Besides these opportunities, Unfortunately this largest networkconnectivity also allows lawless individuals to communicate with other lawlessindividuals as well as with their victims.2In thisassignment, we will try to discuss about cybercrime in detail including thetypes, methods, technical reasons and adverse impact of cyber crimes on anetwork as well as the behavior , psychology behind this crime & someeffective solutions .

 Some common Cybercrimes are:61.Phishing Scams2. Online Scams3. Malware4. Email Bombing5. Virus Dissemination6.

Logic Bombs7. Theft8. Social Media Hack & Spamming9. Electronic Money Laundering10. Sales & Investment Fraud11. Eavesdropping & Surveillance12.

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Software Piracy13. Data Diddling14. Salami Slicing Attack15. Hacking(website ,socialaccount)16.

Cyber Stalking17. Cyber Bullying18. Identity Theft19. Child Soliciting & Abuse20. Ransomware Technical Reasons : There are many technical reasonsbehind these crimes. Some technical reasons behind cyber crimes are as follows: •     Lackof reporting and standards4•     Toughto identify4•     Limitedmedia coverage.4•     Leastmarginal cost of online activity due to global reach.4•     Avery few rate of Official investigation and criminal prosecution4•     Capabilityof computer to store data in comparatively small space.

4•     Easyto access4•     Complexitiesin operating systems code4•     Lakeof evidence4•     Negligence4•     Loopholesin systems5•     Confidentialinformation in online5 The threats of cybercrime to thenetwork security are not only for several organizations, but can be observedall over the world indifferent countries. Relative risk of running computer networksaround the world are shown bellow:2 Name of the Country              Parcentages(%) Chile                       61% China                       45% South Koria                       35% US                         7% Germany                         7% Japan                         6% UK                         6% Sweden                         4% Narway                         3%  Network security:2Its very alarming for our country also. Now, itsurgent to prevent cyber crimes. So we all should try to use proper networksecurity.Some  common types of Information Security Network  Protection( ISNP) packages are asfollows:1.BlackIce2.Conseal PC3.

Tiny4.Protect X5.Sygate Firewall6.Win Route Pro7.Zone Alarm8.

At Guard 9.Esafe Desktop 10.Hack tracer10.InternetFirewall 2000  Benefits of Network Securities:Network securities are very essential to prevent cyber crimes due to manybenefits  such as:1.Reduces unauthorized lawlessindividuals from accessing someone’snetwork.

22.Gives transparent & legalaccess to Internet-enabled users.23.Ensure that the  sensitive data & information istransferred safely by the public network.24.Provide network managers tosearch and fix security problems.25.

Gives a effective system ofwarning alarms attempt to access network.2 Behavior of criminals:We have known  about cyber crime as well as its types,impact, technical reasons in previous discussion. But it is also very important toknow about the behavior or psychology of criminals behind cyber crimes. Becausewho involves in  thisbehavior have also become a partof our  society.8 But there is adifference between computer criminals and non-computer criminals moral choice andexploitive or manipulative behaviors.

8 Self-reported computer criminalswere always higher onmanipulative behaviors but on moral choice internal andmoral choice social, they were lower.8 A research had been done by anorganization with 77 participants from a mid western university Enrolled in thecollege of technology .Among these participants 87% were male and 13% were female(Table-1).

8 The mean age was taken 21years.Mainly, participants are the representativeof the largest population of interested individuals of  17–30 years age who make up the majority ofthose individuals engaged in criminal behavior.8   Table-1:8   Participants Percentage   Gender   Male 86.8% Female 13.2% Age   18–20 51.4 (35) 21–23 39.7 24-27 7.

4 27-older 1.5 Ethnicity   white 85.3% Asian American 8.5% African American 1.5% Indian 1.5% Asian 1.5% Asian(Indian) 1.

5% Major   Comp. Tech 91.2% Comp. Graphics 1.

5% Comp. Science 1.5% Others 5.

9%    It have beenalso found by this research that they had engaged in these following activitiessuch as:8 1.Trying to guess passwords.2.Trying to use other’s passwordwithout authorization.3.Creating or using  a virus.4 Obtaining a device for  free phone calls.5.

Trying to get someone’s credit card data without authorization.6.. Observing at others’ files withoutauthorization.7. Modifying or changing others’ files withoutauthorization. Actually, there are some psychologicalreasons behind these behavior such as•     Officialinvestigation and criminal prosecution is rare.

5•     Catchingby law and enforcement agency is less effective and more expensive.5•     Passionof youngsters5•      Forthe sake of recognition.5•      Desireof making quick money5•     Createnew form of Crimes5•     Accessibilityof victims5•     Drawbacksin judiciary system5  Besides Network securities we can alsoreduce cyber crimes by taking some proper steps such as:•      Proper Investigation.

7•     StrongLegislation.7•      Penalties.7•      Increasing Awareness.7•      Intelligentactivities7•     Ensure proper security of our private data andinformation.   Website Hacking:Websitesbecame a major part of our life for various purposes.

But its very alarmingthat, websites may be hacked by hackers. Websitehacking has become a great threat for businessesdeveloping an online presence.9Hackers are stealing secret data ,information, taking control ,even shutting down any website. 10 The popularity of Web site hacking is mystifying.9 Actually, Hacking  of a Web site can affect the credibility andreputation of the organization.9 But among many types of cyber crimes , Whydo hackers give effort to deface a Web site?9 There are some reasons behindthis.   Hackers can hack websites in many ways such as: 10 1.DDOs Attack(Distributed Denial of Service Attack): Make  unavailablea website to the users.

2. Remotecode execution attacks: Make security weak either the server side or clientside 3.Crosssite request forgery attacks: Hackers send to users aforged HTTP request to collect their cookie information while they are loggedinto a session or account.

4.Symlinking-Aninsider attack: happens when a hacker positions the symlink Which is aspecial file that “points to” a hard link on a mounted file system, the user orapplication that access the endpoint thinks that they are accessing the correctfile but they’re really not.5.DNSCache Poisoning: DNS Cache Poisoning attached old cache data, hackers canidentify vulnerabilities in a domain name system that allows to form trafficfrom legit servers to a fake website .6.

ClickJackingAttacks( UIRedress Attack): to trace a user into clicking the top layer without themknowing by using multiple opaque layers.7.BrockenAuthentication and session management attacks: Passwords,key management, session IDs, cookies are consists in authentication systemsthat can allow a hacker to access the whole information from any website.8.XSSattack: also known as cross site scripting attacks. It can occurwhen an application, file packet, url “get request” is sent to any web browserwindow and bypassing the validation process, for example, user may see a pageasking for their credit card info or any other private information.

 9.Injection Attacks: it happens whenthere are flaws in the SQL Database, SQL libraries or the operating system byitself. Users might open the fileswith hidden commands that’s make an opportunities to  hackers to get unauthorized access tosecret information as well as data as like credit card number or otherfinancial data. A hacker canexploit vulnerabilities by  applying  multiple and various  techniques to hack a Web Site. So some techniques  must be applied  to prevent website hacking as well as keepany website safe.   Some effective techniques for prevent website hacking are given bellow: 1. Keep software up to dateregularly.112.

Toughen up  access control.93.Ensure OSlevel protection94.Use  HTTP attack protection95. Use Webserver resources protection 96.

Usestandard Transact SQL.117. Give strongpasswords11 8. Use HTTPS protocol to provide security over theInternet.

119Use Websitesecurity tools such as Netsparker, OpenVAS,, Xenotix XSS, Exploit Framework  etc.1110. Tighten network security.

311.Hide admin pages.312.

keep Limit file uploads.313.Use SSL.314. keepBack-up frequently.315. Use Serverside validation11Conclusion: We can not think our daily lifewithout computer as well as internet. The advantages of internet and computercan not be described in one word.

But they have also some demerits as likecyber crimes. Its also became a part of our life. Criminals and victims bothare the part of our society.

Now, the rate of various types of cyber crimesincreases rapidly. It must be reduced by keeping proper steps that’s arealready discussed in this paper for keeping safe our personal and private dataand information ,ensure the security of all types of websites and makingour  society clean & peaceful. References:1″Jessica Schuber (2012) : Whatis Cybercrime? – Definition, History, Types & Laws”Availableonline at .  “Ammar Yassir, Smitha Nayak( February 2, 2012) : Cybercrime: A threat to Network Security” Available online at

pdf3″ JohnRampton(20 January,2015): 12 Tips to Protect Your Company Website FromHackers” Available online at 4.” UKESSAYS(23rd March, 2015): Cybercrime Problems And SolutionsInformation Technology Essay” Available online at

php5″ Calling off Cyber Crime:The Vulnerabilities andcauses” Available online at “Silverbug :10Types Of Cyber Crimes… And Another 10 You’ve Never Heard Of” Availableonline at https://www.…-and-another-10-youve-never-heard-of7  “Wikipedia:CyberCrime”  Available online at 8″ MarcusRogers, Kathryn Seigfried, Kirti Tidke(2006):Self-Reported Computer Criminal Behavior:APsychological Analysis” Available online at http://www. 9 “Dr. Yona Hollander(2000):prevent Website Defacement” “Shritam Bhowmick (june 14,2013): 10 MOST POPULAR WAYS HACKERS HACK YOURWEBSITE” Available onlineat ” Ruald Gerber, Toby Compton, Tim Perry (January 24,2017): 9 security tips toprotect your website from hackers” Available online at     


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