INTRODUCTION World trade and maritime transport arefundamental to sustaining economic growth and spreading prosperity throughoutthe world, thereby fulfilling a critical social as well as an economicfunction. . The marine transportation system is a network of specializedvessels, the ports they visit, and transportation infrastructure from factoriesto terminals to distribution centers to markets. is a necessary complement toand occasional substitute for other modes of freight transportation. For manycommodities and trade routes, there is no direct substitute for waterbornecommerce.
1 International maritime transport costs tendto be on average between two to three times as high as custom duties ofimporting countries. it is the cheapest way of transporting large amounts ofgoods compared to other transport methods. Furthermore, maritimetransport will be indispensable in a sustainable future global economy as it isthe most environmentally sound mode of mass transport, both in terms of energyefficiency and the prevention of pollution..2Today shipping due to its international character and theglobalization of the economy is constantly evolving, it is undergoing major changes and atransition. The new IMO regulations and the international conventions havecontributed positively to the development of maritime trade, the safety ofships and the protection of the environment Increasing globalization has led toa strong increase in international shipping activity. 3 The Globalization causesAs theglobal economy struggles to regain its momentum following the recession, it’sclear that shipping will beinstrumental in making it happen.
According to the Ashkenas Jick & kern 1995 the main causes forglobalization are referred to as the· Survival in a competitive world through costreductions, profit margins, economies of scale and local preferences· Desireto disperse or expense for various capital intensive investment Desire or needto generate profit, since the first companies entering a market will get theportion the lion, while the rest are the rest.· Expanding to new territories and regions. The benefit deriving from the successfulabolition and is a generating cause and other benefits. The pursuit ofinnovation and the adoption of new technology that removes geographicalboundaries and time barriers. Comparing a company’s work with the others,showing the need to imitate or to adopt the practices of the other company. Thedecision to follow a customer in another country.
4 IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION INSHIPPING INDUSTRY · Positive Impact· New jobs · Evolution of new business · Labors are needed to preserve the companies running· Plenty of jobopportunities offered· Reducesunemployment Increased Global Production· Rise in demandsof goods and products from customers all over the world· Manufacturersand suppliers need to deliver their goods to the customers· There will bean increase in demand for shipping services especially on seasonal occasions · Negative Impact· EnvironmentalImpact· Air Pollution -Emission of Carbon Dioxide and Sulphur Oxide· Water Pollution- Shipping accidents causes oil spill- Disposal of garbage into sea water· Sound Pollution- Loud noises produced by engines at the harbor· Uneven Benefitto Local Investors· Investmentsneeded for ports and businesses need to expand to accommodate bigger ships· Foreign investorscan offer bigger investments compared to local investorsTherefore, local investors do not get as much share asforeign investor Case study · The environmental impacts of maritimetransport activities.The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gasemissions, acoustic, and oil pollution. The International Maritime Organization(IMO) estimates that Carbon dioxide emissions from shipping were equal to 2.2%of the global human-made emissions in 2012 and expects them to rise 50 to 250percent by 2050 if no action is taken.5Each maritime transportation activity occurring in ports, at seaor during ship construction/maintenance/dismantling, presents differentenvironmental impacts, on air, water, ecosystem and other. Together with theseimpacts also those deriving from accidental events or illegal actions have tobe considered when evaluating the overall contribute of the maritimetransportation sector to environmental quality.6 MAIN EMISSIONS FROM SHIPS:1.
Petroleum (crude oil, mazut)2. Wastes (household-functional)3. Gaseous emissions4. Waste5. Chemicals7 Petroleum products: • Used mineral oils • Fuel residues • Residues • Unclean ballast • Tank washes The sources of the above are:natural (natural outflows), marine (accidental and deliberate) and land(discharges, rain water, river discharges).
Trash: • Households: food waste,packaging materials, bottles, paper • Functionally: maintenance waste, cargo, ash,pallets, straps, fishing nets, animal feces, investment materials. The sourcesof the above are either land or sea. The terrestrial are mainly due transportof waste (through rivers, from seaside, industrial and commercial) touristinfrastructures).
Marine vessels of various types (commercial, fishing, war etc.) Air Emissions: • Exhaust emissions (nitrogen,oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide carbon oxides of sulfur,hydrocarbons) • Other substances that deplete the ozonelayer, derived from the ship refrigerators, air conditioning and fireextinguishing systems. Shipping consumes less per unit of output than the resttransport and emit less harmful gases into the atmosphere (especially itsdioxide coal). The exhaust gases of the ships contribute to the”cooling” of the climate and not to the heating of. So despite itsimpressive participation in world trade, which it touches 90% of globaltransport shows that it is facing its crucial issue climate change and globalwarming, shipping should be considered as a best choice to meet theever-growing global demand for them transport services. 8 Estimated Impacts on Water Water pollution In generalit is observed that there are no detailed information on emissions in water.
This is because, contrary to the air emissions, it is difficult to calculateemission factors for water. However, some estimates indicate that normal shippingoperations are responsible for over 70% of the oil entering the sea from marinetransportation, but as the oil is often spread over a large number oflocations, the effects of operational discharges may appear less dramatic thanthe often catastrophic localised effects of accidental oil spills. 9Theydo, however, give rise to a number of chronic pollution problems, particularlyin low energy environments such as ports and harbours. Statistics show that 80%of oil spills occur in harbour waters. Clearly, these are not the only wastesdischarged by ships. Other vessel discharges may be equally hazardous but todate have generally received less public attention because they are subtler andless visible, e.
g. chemical discharges. Furthermore, there are arguably lesshazardous but highly visible discharges in the form of garbage. (Ball, 1999).
10 Estimated Impacts on Ecosystem Biodiversity loss andhabitat degradation As already mentioned, the study by Cofala et al. (2007)assesses health and environmental impacts of the shipping emission scenarios,extending the IIASA RAINS/GAINS integrated assessment model. In particular, theyused the loss in statistical life expectancy attributable to anthropogenicemissions of PM2.5 as a health impact indicator. The value of that indicator ishighly country- and scenario-specific .
Moreover, they considered the number ofcases of premature deaths attributable to the human exposure to ground-levelozone. Finally, regardingestimates of the protection of all ecosystems against eutrophication, Cofala etal. (2007) included forests, semi-natural vegetation, and freshwater catchmentsand, in particular, the total ecosystems area with nitrogen deposition abovecritical loads for eutrophication. As concerns the negative effects on theecosystem determined by discharge of ballast water, described in the section onthe impacts, the literature review highlights that estimation of ballast watervolume have been done.
11 ConclusionBecause shipping is aservice business, ship demand depends on several factors, including price,speed, reliability and security. It starts from the volume of trade, how thecommodity trades can be analysed by dividing them into groups which shareeconomic characteristics, such as energy, agricultural trades, metal industrytrades, forest products trades and other industrial manufactures