Introduction This essay willentail a discussion chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) andspecifically emphysema and osteoporosis.
I will be explaining what theseconditions are and how it relates to an individual’s physiological state andhow their body would change. With the case study, there is an 87-yeard old manwith emphysema and throughout the discussion of emphysema and how this affects thepatient. COPD What isCOPD? COPD is an inflammatory disease of the airways, mainly associated withcigarette smokeit is a widely used term,which is used to describe progressive lung diseases such as: chronicbronchitis, emphysema, asthma and some forms of bronchiectasis. COPD.
Thisdisease is commonly associated with breathlessness with moderate exertion and apersistent cough. This is a group of lung conditions, that make it difficult toempty out of the lungs due to the airways being narrowed, COPD is amulticomponent disease with extra-pulmonary effects. COPD is apreventable and treatable disease, this is characterised by low amount ofrespiration which is cannot be fully reversed. This respiration problem isprogressive, and this correlates with abnormal inflammatory response of thelungs to destructive chemicals such as; cigarette smoke, occupational hazards,foreign or environmental chemicals.
COPD iscommonly associated with age and many individuals mistake their breathlessnessand coughing as ”normal”, signs of ageing which is not always the case. Thisessay will be concentrating on Emphysema (COPD) as this is the chosen type ofCOPD and the effects this has on the body. This relates to the patient withinthe case study and will explain the effects this has on an individual of thatage and lifestyle.
Emphysema What isemphysema? Emphysema ischronic irreversible lung condition, which causes shortness of breath. Withemphysema, it is commonly associated with pursed lip breathing. This conditionis under the classing of COPD as it is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.The alveoli within the lungs are damaged and over time the inner walls of thealveoli weaken and rupture. This essay will go into more detail about thedestruction of the alveoli later within the essay. Due to this, the air spaceswithin the individual’s lungs then permanently enlarge which make the spacesmuch larger instead of lots of small spaces. Overall, this then reduces thesurface area within the lungs and then this would reduce the amount of oxygenthat reaches your blood stream.
When someone exhaleswith emphysema, the damaged alveoli don’t work properly. Old air then becomestrapped within the lungs, which then leaves no fresh and oxygen rich air toenter the lungs. Howcommon is COPD – emphysema? Emphysema isknown as an epidemic which is affected worldwide, this is said to have affected300 million patients per year, 3 million individuals out of this statistic hasbeen said to have died from emphysema per year.
However, from this there hasbeen said that there is no current treatment available to reduce the mortalityrate of emphysema (COPD). Statisticsstate that there are around 900,000 people within the UK, that have beendiagnosed with COPD. This also states that roughly two million individuals havethe condition but do not know about it. The NHS also states that, emphysemacauses around 250,000 deaths per year. Emphysema risk factors There are manyrisk factors associated with emphysema, these would include: smoking, age,occupation, gender, hereditary, HIV infection and connective tissue disorders. Thelargest risk factor for emphysema is smoking,long term cigarette smoking, is known to be responsible for 85-90% of COPDcases within the UK and is most likely to develop emphysema by this type ofsmoking. Within this smoking category this would include different types ofsmoking; such as pipe smoking, cigar smoking, marijuana smoking and cigarettesmokers. Long term exposure to second hand smoke, is also a risk of emphysemaand individuals with asthma who smoke are at risk of emphysema also.
Thisessay, will go into more detail about smoking with emphysema later within thedocument. Age is a common factor within COPD emphysema, most people whohave emphysema are known to develop emphysema when they are over the age of 40years old. Lung damage is associated with emphysema, as emphysema is known todevelop over time with lung damage.
Other sources suggest that, smoking relatedemphysema would have symptoms of the disease at the age of 50 – 60 years old. Withingender, men are more commonlyaffected by emphysema, than women are. Although, this statistic is changingthis is due to women taking up smoking. Occupationalso plays a risk factor within emphysema, this is due to different types ofoccupations can involve working around; dust, chemicals and fumes.
Hereditary is also a risk factor, thisis due to a rare genetic disease which is called alpha 1- antitrypsindeficiency. Statistics have stated that, this genetic disease is only as commonas 1 percent of the emphysema condition on the risk factors. HIV infection is in the risk category, thisis due to smokers living with HIV are more at risk of retrieving the condition.
As well as this, individuals can develop this at a rather young age, smokerswho also don’t have an HIV infection but smoke are still at risk of developingemphysema but, not as common as individuals who have the sexually transmitteddiseases. Connective tissue disorders areamong the many risk factors with emphysema, the condition can also affect theconnective tissue. The fibres which then provide and support the framework ofthe body. Isemphysema autoimmune or idiopathicAutoimmunediseases, is that the body’s immune system which is the bodies protectionagainst any harm such as, foreign substances that do not belong within the body.But, with autoimmune the bodies protection wrongly attacking different parts ofthe body for no reason, there is a prompt within the body to then activateantibodies within the immune system, to then wrongly attack different bodytissues. With this disease, the cause for this is largely unknown. Examples ofautoimmune disorders would include: inflammatory bowel disease known as IBD,type 1 diabetes, gullliain-barre syndrome, psoriasis and lupus.
Whereas,idiopathic is a disease that is unknown. This is when the disease could have anunknown origin or that the disease is uncertain. When this happens, the diseasewould be then put under the term idiopathic. Although, the cause may be unknownit could have recognisable signs and symptoms and from this be curable. Anexample of diseases such as this would be; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary haemosideorosis,idiopathic scoliosis and idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. So, withemphysema this would be characterised as an umbrella term this is due to COPDhaving many terms.
Such as emphysema which is what this essay, is discussing.Emphysema is known as an inflammatory disease of the airways, this is due tothe airways being blocked.