IntroductionThisessay will be analysing the development of management and leadership theoriesover the last hundred years.
Using various pieces of literature (Buchanan andHuczynski, 2017; Liborius, 2017; French et al., 2015; Conger, 1999), thetransformational leadership theory will be further explored in-depth. Acritical reflection on the literatures reviewed would also be analysed andapplied in practise.
Furthermore, personal reflections on the overall module inregards to management and leadership, action plans in employing the knowledgederived from the research conducted as well as key success indicators would beidentified. To conclude, assumptions would be drawn from the analysed research.Whatis ManagementAsstated by French et al. (2015, p289), management can be defined as a processwhich is “…more concerned with promoting stability and enabling theorganisation to run smoothly” that also “…involves planning, organizing,leading and controlling the use of organizational resources”. Various works ofliterature have also been recognised to support this viewpoint on definingmanagement, with the inclusion of achieving organisational goals (Solomon,Costea and Nita, 2016; Mintzberg, 2009; Kotter, 2006; Perloff, 2004 in Toor andOfori, 2008; Zimmerman, 2001; Maccoby, 2000; Zaleznik, 1977). However, otherstudies further define managers as individuals whose authority is derived simplyfrom position and power (Daft, 2003; Capowski, 1994).Whatis LeadershipStudyshows that there are no collectively agreed definition for leadership (Goethalset al.
, 2004). This is due to the distinct behaviours leaders demonstrate inengaging and influencing their followers (Fiedler, 1969). However, according toBuchanan and Huczynski (2017, p598), leadership is “the process of influencingthe activities of an organised group in its effort toward goal setting and goalachievement”. In line with this definition, a prominent early observer, RalphStogdill (1950), defined leadership as an ‘interpersonal process of influencing’,’a social context of followership’ and ‘a goal achievement driver’. Maccoby(2000) further distinguishes leaders as agents of change. Nevertheless, it hasbeen argued that networked and virtual organisational forms, knowledge work,self-managing teams and flat structures, due to symbolism and hierarchy havebeen recognised to cause a decline in the effectiveness of traditionalleadership (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2017). Formaland informal leadership can be identified as two forms of leadership (Buchananand Huczynski, 2017).
An official authority given by an organisation to executepower to influence the achievement of goals is a formal leadership, while theexercising of resources and exceptional skills in influencing goals achievementis an informal leadership (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2017). Hence, bringing the proposeddefinitions of management and informal leadership side by side (French et al.,2015; Buchanan and Huczynski, 2017). Leadershipvs ManagementManagementand leadership are often used interchangeably (Ofori and Shamas, 2008). Someliteratures have stated that leadership is merely a feature of a managementrole (Mintzberg, 2009), as others claim there is a distinction betweenmanagement and leadership (French et al., 2015; Perloff, 2004 in Toor andOfori, 2008; Daft, 2003; Robbins, 2002; Zimmerman, 2001; Maccoby, 2000; Kumleand Kelly, 1999; Zaleznik, 1997; Capowski, 1994; Kotter, 1990, 2006; Bennis,1989; Bennis and Nanus, 1985). Buchananand Huczynski (2017) states that management and leadership can be separatedconceptually, yet, questioning its application in practise.
According to Oforiand Shamas (2008), managers have been recognised to perform leadership rolesand vice-versa. However, Mawson (2001) still argues that more often the case,in practise, things don’t work out that way. Although having philosophicaldifferences, management and leadership both share the mutual purpose of goalattainment (Zimmerman, 2001). It is also believed that whilst leadership mightbe essential, it may not be sufficient for an effective management (Paus,2008).
Hence, stating that if goals becomes the target, leadership versusmanagement becomes the process (Zimmerman, 2001). Developmentof Management and Leadership Theories WhileBuchanan and Huczynski (2017) and French et al. (2015) identifies transactional(Burns, 1978) and transformational (Tichy and Devanna, 1986; Bass, 1985a,1985b; Bass and Avolio, 1990, 1994) leadership theories as the new and emergingleadership, due to the gaps recognised in both philosophies, recent studies proposeauthentic leadership as the modern approach to leadership (reference).