Introduction: for adequate growth and development of neonates


            Breastfeeding; a way of providing
ideal nourishment for adequate growth and development of neonates and the
advantages range from physiological to psychological for both mothers and
neonates. It is well known that breastfeeding influences a child’s health
positively and improves nutritional status.

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The American Academy of Paediatrics recognizes
breastfeeding and human milk as the “normative standards for infant feeding.
The WHO recommends that for the first six months of life, infants should be
exclusively breastfed to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. The infants
should thereafter, receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods,
while continuing to breastfeed for up to two years or more. Exclusive Breast
Feeding (EBF) is defined as infant feeding with human milk without the addition
of any other liquids or solids. Weaning is usually used to describe the
stopping of breastfeeding after a period of successful breastfeeding. This
usually involves addition of solid food to infant’s diet and/or replacement of
breast milk with another type of milk (formula or whole milk). Maternal
physiology, infant nutritional requirements, infant development, especially that
of biting and chewing, and some cultural issues play an important role in the
timing of weaning.

The prevalence of breastfeeding differs from one
country to another and from one society to another, this is due to cultural and
religious believes.  Even though strong evidences to support EBF for the
first six months of life have been recognised, its prevalence has remained low

 In India,
breastfeeding appears to be influenced by social, cultural, and economic
factors. In 1991, Breastfeeding Promotion Network of India (BPNI) was
introduced to protect, promote and support the practice breastfeeding.  Further
more, the Government of India has undertaken the National Rural Health Mission,
which is to implement Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses
(IMNCI) through the already existing healthcare delivery system.  The
promotion and acceptance of these practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding,
are specifically important in developing countries with high levels of poverty,
and that suffer a high burden of disease and poor access to clean water and
adequate sanitation.

While, a significant number of studies have been made
to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding in different
parts of the world; such studies are low in number among Indian mothers. There
are not many reported studies of breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of
mothers using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitudes Scale) from India. Moreover,
maternal attitude is also a concept of interest to those who support

In this regard, we are proposing a study to
examine  the infant feeding practices, knowledge and attitude towards
breast feeding among Indian postnatal mothers’ using the IIFAS.


1.     To access the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers,
of rural parts of central Karnataka, regarding breastfeeding, complementary
feeding and weaning.

2.     To document
why the mothers were unable to practice exclusive breastfeeding.


This is a cross-sectional study. The study
population comprises of  post
natal mothers who visit the Paediatric Out Patient Department with their
children for vaccination or for the treatment of other minor illnesses at
Adichunchanagiri Hospital and Research centre, B.G. Nagar, Mandya district,

participants will be selected through a random sampling method of the database
of children visiting the Paediatric outpatient department. Those who meet the
inclusion criteria will be interviewed.

 The study criteria; a) mothers of healthy
infants aged 6 months or less than a year old,

 b) born between 37weeks and 42weeks of
gestation period,

 c) and without major birth defects such as
congenital heart disease, cleft lip/cleft palate, Down syndrome and

d) those who
volunteer to participate.

 Mothers of preterm infants, and/or multiple
gestations will be excluded. 

Approximately 200 postnatal mothers will be



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