Ice cream (derived from the sentence iced
cream or cream ice) is a frozen food, sweetened, usually eaten as a snack or
dessert. It is mostly made from dairy products, like milk and cream, and often
combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Typically, is sweetened
with sugar or sugar substitutes. Most of the time, flavourings and colourings
are added in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air
spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice
crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at
very low temperatures (<35 °F / 2 °C). As the temperature is increasing it becomes more malleable. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Some of the different styles and varities of "ice cream" are "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato". It can be served in dishes (eaten with a spoon), or in cones.                 Origins of ice cream     Its origins date back as far as 200 B.C., on the Chinese territory. People there made a dish of rice mixed with milk and then they paked it in the snow to froze it. The Chinese King Tang of Shang is thought to have had over ninety "ice men" who mixed flour, camphor, and buffalo milk with ice. It is known that a little bit after that the Chinese created the first "ice cream machine". They filled with a syrupy mixture some pots they had, which after that these pots were packed into a combination of snow and salt. Alexander the Great was another figure from history who loved eating snow flavored with honey. Nero Claudius Caesar of Rome was said to have sent people up to the mountains to collect snow and ice which would then be flavored with juice and fruit—kind of like a first-century snow cone. Back then these "ice creams" were evidently a luxury indulged in by the rich, and obviously, not everyone had the ability to send servants up the mountains to collect snow for them. One of the earliest forerunners of modern ice cream was a recipe brought back to Italy from China by Marco Polo. The recipe was very like what we would call sherbet. From there, it is thought that Catherine de Medici brought the dessert to France when she married King Henry II in 1533. In the 1600s, King Charles I of England was said to have enjoyed "cream ice" so much that he paid his chef to keep the recipe a secret from the public, believing it to be solely a royal treat. However, these two stories appeared for the first time in the 19th century, many years after they were said to have taken place, so may or may not be true. "Café Procop" was one of the first places that served ice cream in the 17thcentury, France. The common ingredients for ice cream were milk, butter, and eggs .These three elements were mixed. However, this dessert was not for everyone back then. Ice cream was mostly eaten by the elite class. In 1744 ice cream appeared the first time in America, when a Scottish colonist visited the house of Maryland Governor Thomas Bladen, wrote about the delicious strawberry ice cream he had in his time there. The notion of "ice cream" was mentioned about in 1777 in the New York Gazette, in which Philip Lenzi said ice cream was, at his shop, "available almost every day".                                                    Types and Characteristics There are many types of ice cream in the world and every each of them has its characteristics. ·         Hard Ice Cream : Traditional or regular contains cream and/or milk, sugar, and can contain eggs, stabilizers and other flavoring ingredients like vanilla, chocolate, fruit and many other add-ins…there are endless options. ·         French Ice Cream: Traditional ice cream made with a custard base containing cream and/or milk, egg yolks or whole eggs, sugar, stabilizers and other flavorings. ·         Soft Ice Cream: Made with milk and/or cream, sugar, stabilizers and flavorings that is frozen at a higher temperature in a special machine that keeps the mixture smooth, creamy and soft while it's being frozen. ·         Light Ice Cream:  Made with milk ingredients, sugar, stabilizers and other flavorings that contains at least 25% less milk fat than regular hard ice cream. ·         Reduced Fat Ice Cream: Made with lower fat milk ingredients, sugar, stabilizers and other flavorings. The amount of fat can vary and is declared on the label. ·         Fat-free Frozen Dairy Dessert: Made with modified milk ingredients, sugar or artificial or natural sweeteners and stabilizers, this ice cream contains about 0.1% fat or 0.5 g fat per serving. ·         No Sugar Added Ice Cream or Frozen Dairy Dessert: Similar to ice cream, typically made with milk ingredients and stabilizers as well as artificial sweeteners or natural sugar substitutes and other flavorings. Lower in fat than regular ice cream. ·         Lactose-free Ice Cream: Ice cream made with added lactase enzyme and therefore contains no detectable lactose making it more easily digestible for people with lactose intolerance. ·         Gluten-Free Ice Cream: Since some stabilizers and other ingredients added in ice cream production may contain gluten, it is important to read the ingredients list to make sure the ice cream is gluten-free. Some brands include a "gluten-free" logo on the label. ·         Organic Ice Cream: Contains organic ingredients. ·         Italian-style Gelato: More milk than cream (making it lower in fat), egg yolks, sugar or other sweeteners and flavorings. Gelato has a more intense flavor than traditional ice cream and less air.     International Market                                                                All over the world are many ice cream lovers and we all know that during summer (but not only) this may be the best dessert to cool ourselves in the hot days. According to Forbes I found out which are world's top 3 ice cream brands that people would love to buy.           The World's Top Selling Ice cream Brands of 2017:   1.      Magnum Source:                  Company : Unilever Group             2015 Global Sales : $2.540 Billion   1.      Häagen-Dazs Source:   Company : General Mills Inc. 2015 Global Sales : $2.086 Billion 2.      Cornetto Source :   Company : Unilever Group 2015 Global Sales : $1.595 Billion     "Technavio's report, Global Ice Cream Market 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the Key vendors operating in this market. Key vendors :Blue Bell Creameries ,General Mills ,Mars, Nestlé , Lotte Confectionary ,Unilever .Other prominent vendors : Amul , Amy's Ice Creams , Bliss Unlimited , China Mengniu Dairy ,  Dean Foods , Friesland Campina , Grupo Lala , Marina Ice Cream , Mikawaya , Oregon Ice Cream , Rich Ice Cream and so on. Market driver: New and innovative product and flavor launches. Market challenge: Increasing issues related to obesity and being overweight. Market trend: Development of lactose-free ice cream." Production: The average American consumes almost 22 pounds of ice cream per year. U.S. ice cream companies made more than 872 million gallons of ice cream in 2014. Frozen dairy production follows a clear seasonal pattern. Summer is the unchallenged season for eating ice cream and other related products. Production kicks up in March and April to fill retail and foodservice pipelines in the late spring and early summer. June is the most productive month of the year, but production remains strong through August to satisfy summer demand. Production declines through the end of the year. Sales: According to a recent survey of International Ice Cream Association member companies, the most popular flavor among their consumers remains the vanilla flavour. Companies said that the next most popular flavours were Chocolate Chip Mint and Cookies and Cream. Source: IDFA ice cream company survey, 2012. The majority of ice cream and frozen desserts are marketed regionally. More than 66.7 percent of U.S. ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturers say they market their products regionally, with 16 percent marketing nationally. The international market accounts for 10 percent of the market for U.S. companies. Source: IDFA ice cream company survey, 2012. The ice cream companies that market products around the world identify Asia, the Caribbean, Mexico and Latin America as importers. Source: IDFA ice cream company survey, 2012 The most popular product with the consumers, according to a recent survey of U.S. ice cream manufacturers, is premium ice cream (which tends to have lower amount of aeration and higher fat content than regular ice cream). In the survey, 79.3 percent cited premium ice cream as the most popular product made while 10 percent said that novelties are most popular.  Novelties are defined as separately packaged single servings of a frozen dessert – such as ice cream sandwiches and fudge sticks. Source: IDFA ice cream company survey, 2012. Ice cream labeling: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets standards of identity for many foods, including ice cream and frozen desserts. They do that because they want the consumers to a consistent product, no matter what brand or type they buy. FDA defines nutrient descriptors such as "light," "reduced fat" and "low-fat" so that consumers know exactly what they're selecting in terms of nutritional content. All labeling statements follow the federal Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA), which governs all food labeling.      Here you can see some phrases that costumers are usually dealing with in supermarkets, and what exactly is the meaning of these terms: Ice cream is a frozen food made from a mixture of dairy products, containing at least 10 percent milk-fat. ·         "Reduced fat" ice cream contains at least 25 percent less total fat than the referenced product (either an average of leading brands, or the company's own brand). ·           "Light" or "lite" ice cream contains at least 50 percent less total fat or 33 percent fewer calories than the referenced product (the average of leading regional or national brands). ·           "Low-fat" ice cream contains a maximum of 3 grams of total fat per serving (½ cup). ·           "Non-fat" ice cream contains less than 0.5 grams of total fat per serving.              In addition, phrases such as "super-premium," "premium" and "economy" are commonly used in marketing to describe ice cream products in terms of quality segments,. Several factors can contribute to a product's quality segment such as price, brand positioning, product packaging,  quality of ingredients, milk-fat content and the amount of overrun (air) in the product. Overrun means that the composition of ice cream is well done and more exactly the amount of aeration the ice cream undergoes when is prepared that keeps the mixture from becoming an inedible frozen mass. Overrun is governed by federal standards this means that the finished product must not weigh less than 4.5 pounds per gallon.     ·         "Super-premium" ice cream tends to have very low overrun and high fat content, and the manufacturer uses the best quality ingredients. ·         "Premium" ice cream tends to have low overrun and higher fat content than regular ice cream, and the manufacturer uses higher quality ingredients. ·         "Regular" ice cream meets the overrun required for the federal ice cream standard. ·         "Economy" ice cream meets required overrun and generally sells for a lower price than regular ice cream.                                             Romanian Market                  With a promotion budget topping the cumulated one of the top four Romanian producers this summer, Unilever has become one of the top three players on an ice-cream market put at 120-140m euros in less than a year. Algida's arrival changed the hierarchy on the Romanian ice-cream market: supported by strong promotion, the newest unit Unilever brought in Romania at the end of summer ranked third among the biggest players in terms of value share, according to MEMRB data. Unilever representatives put the company's market share at 13.4%, quoting the same MEMRB survey. On the other hand, the biggest Romanian producers are still reporting sales increases and say the toughest battle was fought during the summer season between Algida and Nestlé, the only foreign players on the market. "Algida is fighting Nestlé on the Romanian market, we do not see foreign players as direct rivals," states Ioan Istrate, owner of Alpin 57 Lux company producing Alpin ice-cream. The Romanian ice-cream market, put at 120-140m euros, is dominated by companies owned by Romanian entrepreneurs. They generated over 70% of total ice-cream sales in Romania last year. In his turn, Vasile Armenean, owner of Betty Ice, the biggest Romanian ice-cream producer, maintains Betty Ice gained market share during this year's season. Top Gel also reported rising sales. The producer of Amicii ice cream, Kubo Ice Cream, specified the company posted flat sales this year. Unilever's biggest stake this year was to tap into the market with the premium products of Algida's portfolio, which directly compete with Nestlé Ice Cream and Betty Blue and other products of Romanian companies. At the same time, Romanian producers could not ignore Unilever's charge into the medium and low-price segments of the ice-cream market, accounting for around three quarters of total volume sales domestically. To tackle the most developed segment of the market, Unilever this year made two important moves: it acquired Napoca brand from Friesland Foods in the early 2009 and several months later launched Big Milk ice-cream on the market, a product manufactured in Poland and distributed only in Romania. With its price way below Algida's portfolio average, Big Milk rivals most products brought onto the market by Romanian companies.     Alpin57Lux company, one of the major players on the ice cream market in Romania, will be taken over by the Latvian group Food Union after company founder Ioan Istrate sold a majority stake. The new joint venture will support the company's development plans. Alpin57Lux owns a factory in Sebes (Alba county) and has its own logistics network with a car park with 250 cars and nationwide distribution. The company has in its portfolio more than 100 ice creams sold under different brands and a branded frozen pastry Romcherie. Alpin57Lux, a company with business estimated at about 90 million lei, is competing on the ice cream market with major players such as Unilever, Nestle and Betty Ice. The Latvian company, Union Food, focuses on distributing consumer goods under the umbrella of different brands, while providing customized solutions for dairy and ice cream industry. Food Union Group comprises into three companies in the production and processing of milk and ice cream in Latvia (AS R?gas Piena kombin?ts, AS Valmieras Piensa and SIA R?gas piensaimnieks), the largest ice cream maker in Estonia (Premia), the largest producer of ice cream in Denmark (Premier Is), the third largest producer of ice cream in Norway (Isbjørn Is) and now, Alpin57Lux.   Romanian's Top Ice cream Brands Source:   Interesting facts about ice cream      Do you love ice cream as much as I do? If you can't go a day, a week, or even a month without the delicious flavors of ice cream, then I know how you feel. I am pretty sure you are an ice cream lover but did you know everything about it? If not, here are some interesting facts about ice cream.I have found some cool tidbits about ice cream that you may not have heard before. If you want to learn new things about ice cream world I invite you to read the facts below and surprise your friends and family with what you've discovered. ·         It takes 12 pounds of milk to produce just 1 gallon of ice cream. ·         The average number of licks to finish a scoop of ice cream is 50. ·         The country that consumes the most ice cream is USA, followed by Australia then Norway. ·         The most popular flavor is vanilla, then chocolate. ·         Chocolate ice cream was invented before vanilla. ·         Vanilla was rare and exotic in the late 1700's. ·         The first written ice cream recipe was found in a 1665 recipe book. ·         The majority of Americans – around 90% have ice cream in their freezers. ·         Some of the strangest flavors found are: avocado, garlic, chili, licorice, Stilton cheese, and bacon. ·         Ice cream headaches or "brain freeze" is the result of the nerve endings in the roof of your mouth sending a message to your brain of the loss of heat. ·         The tallest ice cream cone was over 9 feet tall in Italy. ·         Chocolate syrup is the most popular ice cream topping.  Source:                        ice-cream/fun-facts-about-ice-cream-that-you-didnt-know/                                       Conclusion           In conclusion, ice cream is one of the most beloved desserts in the world.Everybody loves ice cream and that is a fact.It doesn't matter if outside its summer or not, it's never a bad time for ice cream.The statistics show that the demand for ice cream is increasing same as the supply because more and more people are buying this dessert.There are many types of ice cream on the market for every one of you so you can choose the one that suits your tastes better.As an example, if you are on a diet you can buy a no sugar added ice cream or a reduced fat ice cream.You have a list of many attractive possibilities.        There are some main brands of ice cream that are on the top of the list of international selling markets like Magnum, Cornetto, and Häagen-Dazs.These brands are a part of some major companies who earned some huge amount of money this year. The International market is concerned about the costumer's issues like obesity and overweight and they are trying to solve this problem by changing some elements from ice cream composition.More and more people are buying this type of dessert and for that matter, the vendors have to provide high-quality services. On the other hand, Romanian Market is supported by strong promotion and the sales are increasing.Algida and Nestle, two major brands from Romanian Market are fighting for the first place.         In addition, things are looking good so far for the producers and also for the consumers.  


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