This assignment focuses on four of the many concepts from
what we have learned in our classes. This assignment contains a summary of the
articles or online sources we have obtained about, communication, performance management
(S.M.A.R.T Goals), stages of group development and the impact of external
environment on an organisation respectively.

1.     Communication

The first article focusses on communication, which includes
the process, barriers and how to improve it.

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The process of communication is generally defined as the
exchange of information, which includes a sender and receiver. A sender is
generally the person who conveys something and the person who the sender is
conveying the information to is the receiver. The ideas and information the
sender wants to convey is encoded and sent as verbal, non-verbal or through
writing through a medium the examples of some of the medium are face to face,
written or through electronic medium and there are noises that could interfere
with the message while it is being sent through the medium such as language
barriers, outside voices, poor range are some of the examples. But the
communication process is completed when the receiver decodes the information
and then encodes and gives a feedback which is sent to the sender. Feedback is
a way the sender knows the receiver received the message and understood the
message that he had sent.

The barriers are also considered as noises some of which are
physical barriers, Jargon, psychological barriers. Physical barriers consist of
physical distractions such as a drop in visitor, a wall or interruptions such
as telephone calls, even the interior design of the workspace can also be a
barrier in this case for example if employees are allocated to work within
cubicles the transfer of messages will be hindered due to the walls.
Professional Jargon is the other major factor that hinders communication in a
work space due to the different meaning or sense of the words used in different
fields or while talking to a client the receiver might have a totally different
understanding for example a staff member might have a different understanding
of efficiency, management prerogatives than that of a manager. Psychosocial
barriers consist of social, cultural, difference in the field of experience,
filtering are some of many. Social and cultural are influenced with the
person’s surroundings such as where he/she is born and what society the person
grew up in because some words might have different meaning to people from
different places. A commonly used word but not considered as a serious curse
word to one person might be considered an offence to the other person and could
hurt the other person’s feelings. The difference in the field of experience is
also a major factor as the field differs the understanding of different words
or context differs. As for filtering, people tend to filter what they have
understood to what they wanted to see or hear so messages are interpreted
differently. Also if a person tends to dislike a person the messages might be
blocked and also taken in a negative manner. These are some of the barriers
that affect the communication process.

The process of improving communication, communication is a
two-way process and it requires both the senders and receiver to be effective. The
sender and receiver must understand the barriers such as physical barriers,
jargon, psychosocial barriers and send the messages respectively and receive it
as well. While communicating they should find a surrounding where there would
be very less distractions that could make them wander or make it hard for them
to understand. The use of jargon should also be avoided while communicating so
that the receiver could understand what you mean thoroughly. Also understand
where the receiver comes from and refrain from using words that could offend
the listener and also try to avoid emotions that might hinder the communication
process. The receiver should listen carefully and understand what the sender is
saying and show sign’s that you are listening and respond what you have
understood and also try to share the feeling to make the communication process
more effective.


Communication is a major factor in an organisation as stated
in the presentation good communication allows firms to Increase efficiency, improve
quality of their product or service, become more responsive to customers,
foster innovation. For these to occur we need to understand how the
communication process works, what all affects the process and how we can avoid
it the article that I was able to come across was able to provide me with such
information. There are a number of barriers that retard the communication
process if the organisation is taught and made aware of these barriers will
increase the effectiveness of communication. When aware we as managers can
increase efficiency by being able to convey a message in a way that the
listener will be able to understand what he or she is saying and the listener
will also be able to respond in a better way to make the sender know that he or
she knows what has been asked from them. Also in the hospitality industry communication
is a major key as most of the time we interact with guests and when faced with
problems good method of communication is required in problem solving. Because
when a guest has a problem and we as the listeners should stop talking, make
them feel free to talk to you, empathise, be patient and respond with what you
have understood, doing these as a listener will help you in the hospitality
industry. Organisations are relying on communication for exchanging ideas,
messages as well if the ideas and messages are communicated effectively the
outcome will be productive and innovative. Hence effective communication is a
major factor in organisations and this article helps us get a better
understanding of the process, barriers and ways to increase effectiveness of

2.-. Performance management (SMART Goals)

SMART is an acronym, which is a step by step way to attain a
goal. Its is used to evaluate the performance. Managers and supervisors focus
on performance on the basis of employees attaining and working on the smart
goals. This article helps in how to write these smart goals in order to measure
the performance of the employees.

Performance management is a process and it starts by the
establishment of key responsibilities, creation of smart objectives, setting of
expectations, providing resources and support, providing ongoing feedback,
recording performance events after that it moves towards the gathering of feed
back, preparation of appraisal document, communication with employees, formal
review process and then it repeats again.

Defining the SMART Goals

Specific – here it is used to define what we expect from the
employee or from ourselves. It is what the goal is, who will be involved in it,
the reason for accomplishing the goals, where it will take place are some of
the criteria that we can use to define a goal.

Measurable – the goal should be measurable; we should be
able to measure our success. The criteria’s that we can use are, how we can
define or know we have succeeded, how long it would take, how many actions will
it take as well.

Attainable – It should be in the capability of the employee
of ourselves to attain the goal. We need to know if we have the resources or
ability to complete the task.

Relevant – Making sure the goal is practical is also an
important part. The goal should be worthwhile and meaningful, should be
committed to attain the goal.

Time-bound – There should be a time set for when the goal
should be attained. Should know when to take action, what to do in a specific
amount of time.

Writing SMART Goals is a hard thing as it requires effective
when the goal is attained. The main goal SMART Goal is to help the employees
know what the organisations higher goals are and what the organisation expects
from the employees. The goals should also be linked with their jobs in order
and measurable within their field when being assigned. The SMART goals should
be given to employees, which are realistic and time bound and the employee
should attain the goal on a regular basis which improves the outcome. The goals
should be set in a functional way because it is important for the goal to be
focused towards the mission of the department and with their job. The
description of how the goals will be met and measured should be explained with
the employees but it should not affect the day to day activities in the job
rather than that it should promote the activities. The other part of SMART
goals is to impact objectives, such as behaviour such as attitude, knowledge or

The three components that are required to create a smart
goal is performance, criteria and condition.

Performance – it is what the employer is expecting from the
employee and also the measurement required to meet the goals.

Criteria – It is the quality or level of performance
expected from the employee.

Conditions – They are the bounds under which the performance
should be attained.




Smart Goals are a major part in an organisation it can help
an organisation to acquire a goad or aim of a company. An organisation always
tends to endeavour towards achieving a goal, without setting a goal the companies
growth would be chaotic and the things happening wont be in control hence in order
to attain a goal a structure is required and this structure is attained through
the setting of SMART Goals. The SMART goals tend to be the outline or the basis
to reach a goal. The text book helps us get an understanding of the topic and
this article explains about performance management and what’s the outcome and
where it can be used. The SMART Goals helps in attaining a goal which is
achievable and which is not a fantasy it gives us a clear picture on what to
aim for, where, how, when, with whom, what the conditions and limitations are
and the reason for attaining the goal. It helps us measure the task, helps us understand
if the goal is attainable, relevant and all in a timely manner. In an industry
these processes are key for growth, a manager will be able to give goals to the
employees and make them attain the goals through the process and the manager
will be able to evaluate the employees according to the tasks. It is also the
duty of the manager to see if the employee can complete the task effectively and
also make sure that the goal doesn’t make their daily workplace activity to
hinder. By giving SMART Goals to employees the employees will know what the
company is expecting from them. Nowadays if we ask an employee what their (The
companies) goal or aim is they wont be able to say it and it is because of this
but by studying the textbook and by reviewing the article we are able to attain
a clear picture of how employers should give goals and how an employee should
use the SMART Goal system to attain that goal and understand the company’s



3 – Stages of Group development

A group is two or more people who interact with each other
to reach a certain goal or meet certain needs. Groups are a major part in an
organisation as it helps in sharing of knowledge, ideas, checking facts and
support which helps in promoting productivity in an organisation and this
article helps define the ‘life cycle’ or stages of group development.

The four stages of group development are Forming, Storming,
Norming and Performing.

In the forming stage is when the group comes together, to
getting to know the members in the group and would look up for the guidance
from the group leader. The group members generally require acceptance of the
group. The orientation process occurs in this stage, the discussion about the
scope of the tasks are talked about and how the group should approach the tasks
and also discuss about the similar concerns. They tend to stay in a similar
wavelength to avoid controversy. The group members tend to be oriented towards
each other.

Secondly in storming the roles of each of the members,
relationship and the values are discussed. In this session they also tend to
discuss about the leadership and control of the group. As they organize these
functions the members would have to bend and mold themselves their ideas and
opinion in a way which suites the group. Because several fear occurs during the
grouping if only the members learn how to bend and mold they would be able to
perform better. That is the reason why there is the occurrence of discomfort
between the members and hence some might stay silent through out the session and
others would dominate due to discomfort and competition. For going into the
next step members would have to be in a problem solving mentality and also the
trait of listening is a major key in moving forward to the next step.

Thirdly the process of norming, where establishment of the
roles and expectations are announced. Here the acknowledgement of all the
members occurs. Members tend to rethink about their ideas on the facts and
suggestions presented by the other members as this occurs the trust and loyalty
between each other increases as a result the group will work more cohesively.
In this stage the sense of group belonging also occurs. The flow of ideas
occurs the most during this stage

Performing is the part where all the duties and tasks are
taken into action. When the group process is established the group moves
towards their individual tasks or as subgroups. The authoritarian roles get
adjusted to the needs of the group. Through this process the interdependence in
personal relations is seen. Self assurance of the individual members occurs as
well. In this stage there is no need for group approval as they have become
self-assured. When a group is able to reach this stage there is overall
togetherness and an overall identity. All the functions are faced optimally and
as a result group development occurs as well. This is also the most productive
stage in the process and the overall goal is to get productive by solving the

And at the end adjourning, is the termination of tasks or it
can also be considered as a conclusion. This is also an opportunity to say
goodbye. In this process the recognition of the participation of each members
and the achievements are noticed.







Groups are required in an organisation to achieve
organisational goals. With the help of the article and what we have learned we
are able to understand how to form a group and what we can expect from a group
through each of the stages of group development. From these we can understand that
a group experiences these different stages like a life cycle and these are like
stages of group experience that the members have to go through. The grouping is
like a cooperative team work as a result of a group work their collaborative
work will help the company with benefits and also all the members of the group.
As a result of group work the employees will be able to share each others experience
and knowledge. As a result of the pool of knowledge the group would be able to tackle
difficult projects. If only one employee works on a project due to his lack of
experience or knowledge would face struggles but in a group, it could be
avoided. Groups are also like a pool of ides as they will be discussing a
projects their ideas are encouraged as well as their creativity which helps in
solving problems as well. There is also the ability to fact check and if there
are any mistakes in a group structure it would be easy to correct them. There
is also a sense of support in a group which is encouraging through the lessons
we learned about groups through what we learned and the article and other references
we are able to get a clear cut picture of how a group in better that working
individually and how it is more effective in the growth of an organisation is





4 – The Impact of external environment on an organisation

An organisation should consider its environmental changes
inside and outside and adapt to the changes that occurs to it. Some of the
external factors that affect the harmony of a company are the economy, politics,
technological, social.

Economical factors include inflation, interest rates, growth
in the economy, exchange rate, and the other forces also affect the national
economy and also the general and well being of a national organization. If the
economy is strong the people will have more money to spend and hence that will
increase the money the amount of money that could be earned if the organisation
opens in that economy.

Politics also play an important factor that influence an
organisation. There are rules and regulations that an organisation has to
follow in order to attain licence to run the organisation. There are taxes,
labor law etc. that add to the force. Hence a company needs to ensure legal
stability, legal factors can either encourage or discourage a business.

Technology also plays a major factor, as time passes
technology improves the company needs to be up to date with their design,
produce and several more factors associated with the company. This includes
techniques and approaches for the production as well according to the
technological advancements.

Social factors are the difference in the companies’ culture
with the social culture where it is located. Companies have to adopt their ways
according to the social trend and ethnicity for example if a McDonalds opens in
India they would have to work with the ethnic food in order promote their

The external business environment involves the factors
represented above as well as threats to the company such as other
establishments. The changes that occur in the external environment can vary at
anytime and is unpredictable as the region and country changes. The analysis of
the environment is a major factor for a manager to deal with the business
challenges. The external factors are complex and dynamic and it can impact the
long term development of the business. A proper understanding of the economical,
political, technological, social environments helps in identifying threats and
opportunities, strengths and weaknesses.



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