Introduction: and violence in the upper circles of

Introduction:Why  did  I  choose this  topic? Main part:My  observations  (  Interesting characters  /  Influence on  moral  structure )   Conclusion:     When  I read   The  Inferno without  any  prior cognition  of  the relationship  between  the Greek  and  Roman cultures  I  was confused  by  Dante’s design  of  Hell. Dante  has  placed the  characters  whose sins  included  lust, wrath,  and  violence in  the  upper circles  of  Hell; in  the  lower, more  evil  circles are  sinners  who lied,  deceived,  and committed  treason. The  Inferno  as  I  said  earlier has  a  lot  of  references to Greek  culture  ( Greek Mythology ),  and in that topic I’d like to tell you aboutcharacters whose  made  me think.  At  the first  sight,  names  of protectors   of  each circle  were  not so  interesting  for me.

In my  opinion, the  main  reason  is explanation of  their  functions in  hell:                                         Canto 3 “All  those who  perish  in  the  wrath  of  God Here  meet together  out  of  every  land; And  ready  are  they  to pass  o’er  the  river,  Because  celestial  Justice  spurs  them on, So  that  their  fear is  turned  into  desire. This  way  there never  passes  a  good  soul; And  hence if  Charon  doth complain  of  thee, Well  mayst thou  know  now  what his  speech  imports.”In  that  part of poem  we recognized  that  Charon  resolves problem  of  transportation.

In mythology Charon  carries  souls of  the  newly deceased  across therivers  Styx  and Acheron that divided the world of theliving from the world of the dead. A coin to pay  Charon  for  passage, generallyan obolus  or danake,   which were  sometimes placed in or on the mouth of a dead man.                                    Canto5 There  standeth Minos  horribly,  and snarls;  Examines  the transgressions  at  the entrance; Judges,  and sends  according  as he  girds  him.  In  circle  two,  Minos  judges the  sinners  and  decides                                                                    how they  will  serve one’s sentence.  Minos  as  I  know                                                                      is a   son of  Zeus and  Europe  whom  we                                                                                          knowfrom  Greek  Mythology. Also  in   Homer’s                                                                                                                                     Odyssey  our  character plays  the  same role  of  judge in  another  world: “Minos,glorious son of Zeus… holding a golden sceptre, and passing judgments on thedead, who stood and sat around the king, seeking justice, throughout thespacious gates of Hades’ home” (Homer, 11.733-37) According  to  the Odyssey  he  spoke  with Zeus every  nine  years or  fo r nine  years.

 He  got  his laws straight  from  Zeus himself.  When  Minos’ son  Androgeos  had won  the  Panathenaic Games  theking,  Aegeus,  sent him  to  Marathon to fight  a  bull, resulting  in  the death  of  Androgeos. Outraged,  Minos went  to  Athens to  avenge  his son,  and  on the  way  he camped  at  Megara where  Nisos  lived. Learning  that  Nisos’ strength  came  from his  hair,  Minos gained  the  love of  Scylla  and her  aid  in cutting  off  her father’s  hair  so that  he  could  conquer  the city. However,  After  the   victory,   hepunished  Scylla  for her  treachery  against her  father  by tying  her  to a  boat  and dragging  her  until she  drowned.  I cannot  explain his decision,  but  he  was just  or  cruel. Perhaps,   it  was one of  the  reasons  why Dante  used  this character  to  judging  sinners.                                Canto 6Cerberus, monster cruel and uncouth, With his three gullets like a dog is barking Over the people that are there submerged.

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Red eyes he has, and unctuous beard and black, And bellylarge, and armed with claws his hands; He rends the spirits, flays, and quarters them. Cerberuslooked like a three-headed dog with a snake’s tail, on the back of asnake’s head, as eerie as his mother. According to other descriptions, he has50 heads or 100 heads, and in another mythology, he is depicted with a humanpowerful body and hands and one head of a mad dog. In one of the hands was asevered head of a bull that killed with its breath and on the other hand the head of a goat, which with its eyes hit the victims. In the works ofvase painting sometimesdepicted biceps.         

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