IntegratedCoastal Zone Management (ICZM):Definition andPrincipals:The coastal zone is an extremely complex social-ecological systemthat varies in relation to its environmental, socio-economic, cultural andgovernance factors. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) seeks to developan integrated model for sustainable development that is based on finding pointsof convergence among these factors (Diedrich et al., 2010). There are a number of definitions of ICZM in the wider academic andpolicy literatures. For present purposes a useful starting point is thatprovided by the ICZM Protocol which views it as: “.
..a dynamicprocess for the sustainable management and use of coastal zones, taking intoaccount at the same time the fragility of coastal ecosystems and landscapes,the diversity of activities and uses, their interactions, the maritimeorientation of certain activities and uses and their impact on both the marineand land parts.” Cicin?Sain and Belfiore,2005 provide a more detailed account of the evolution of the concept,tracing its lineage from Rio through to the more contemporary expressions ofthe ideas in the ECdocument (Towards a European Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)Strategy, 2000), They argue that while the broad concept continuesto evolve, we can now recognise an international model or set of principles thatenjoys wide acceptance. Others, however, (McKenna et al., 2008) offered a critique of thetensions between the different elements of the concept. Thus, while there is aconsiderable body of experience in its application extending over three decades(Henocque, 2003),it has been suggested by (O’Haganand Ballinger, 2009) that more case studies describing the successfulapplication of the idea are needed and further conceptual analysis is still probablyrequired. The Principles set out in the EC document on ICZM formed the basisof the 2000 Communication from the Commission to the Council and the EuropeanParliament on Integrated Coastal Zone Management: Strategy for Europe.
Sixoverarching ideas for ICZM were initially proposed, namely that it should takea wide ranging perspective, that is should build on an understanding ofspecific conditions in the area of interest, that it should work withnatural processes, use participatory processes, work to ensure the support andinvolvement of all relevant administrative bodies, and use a combination ofinstruments and approaches. In the subsequent Communication from theCommission, the six themes of the Strategy became ten, with the idea abouttaking a wide ranging perspective being split to emphasise the need to consideron the one hand spatial and thematic issues, and on the other the temporaldimension. The ten principles proposed in the ICZM Protocol as listed belowwith taking in consideration the strategic planning and ecosystem approaches: 1. ICZMseeks to take account of the wealth of natural capital in coastal zonesrepresented by ecosystems and the output of ecosystem services that depend onthe complementary and interdependent nature of marine and terrestrial systems.Thus policy makers and managers should consider the effects of their actionsand activities on those social, economic and environmental systems that affectthe coastal zone or are affected by processes within it or out of it, byconsidering the cross?sectoral implications of all plans and policies. 2. Allelements relating to hydrological, geomorphological, climatic, ecological,socio?economic andcultural systems shall be taken into account in an integrated manner and in along?termperspective, so as not to exceed the carrying capacity of the coastal zone andto prevent the negative effects of natural disasters and of development.Policies and plans in the coastal zone should therefore ensure that ecosystemsare managed within the limits of their functioning.
3. Theecosystem approach to coastal planning and management should be designed toensure the sustainable development of coastal zones. This implied that not onlyshould ecosystems be managed within the limits of their functioning, but alsothat full account is taken of the varying temporal scales and lag?effects thatcharacterize ecosystem processes. As a result, ICZM should look to the longterm so that sustainable development can be achieved.
4. Appropriategovernance allowing adequate and timely participation in a transparent and wellinformed decision?making process by local populations and stakeholders in civilsociety concerned with coastal zones shall be ensured. In doing so ICZMrecognises that the management of land, water and living resources is a matterof societal choice. This will require that all relevant sectors of society andscientific disciplines should be involved in framing the options, and that allforms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and localknowledge, innovations and practices be taken into account. In particular theway different groups value ecosystem services should be understood. 5. Giventhe requirement for cross?sectoral management approaches in the coastal zone, theinstitutions dealing with social, economic and environmental issues mustthemselves be organised to ways that allow integrated approaches to thedevelopment.
This will require that appropriate institutional capacity be builtand that decision makers should be competent in using all the forms of evidencethat needs to be taken into account. 6. Theformulation of land use strategies, plans and programmes covering urbandevelopment and socio?economic activities, as well as other relevant sectoral policiesare needed for successful ICZM. However, their impacts need to be assessment,and the implications considered in terms of the trade?offs betweenthe natural, economic, social and cultural capitals. 7. ICZMis essentially place?based and should take account of geographical context.
In particular,it must recognise and communicate the particular qualities, characteristics andopportunities in the coastal zone that arise from the proximity of land andsea, and take steps to protect and sustain them. Thus management should bedecentralized to the lowest appropriate level to ensure that management orpolicy goals are understood and owned by those who affect their implementationand success. 8.
Theallocation of uses throughout the entire coastal zone should be balanced.Moreover the coastal developments need to be balanced with related processes inthe coastal hinterland. 9. Preliminaryassessments shall be made of the risks associated with the various humanactivities and infrastructure so as to prevent and reduce their negative impacton coastal zones. Although such risk assessments should take account of thelimits of ecosystem function, assessment must also recognise that change isinevitable, and so must be updated by periodic assessments in the light ofchanging circumstances. ICZM must be framed as an adaptive process.
10. Damageto the coastal environment shall be prevented and, where it occurs, appropriaterestoration shall be effected. The EcosystemApproach (EsA) and IZCM: Much of the recent interest in the Ecosystem Approach (EsA) can be tracedback to the influence of the Conventionfor Biological Diversity (CBD), 1995, which adopted it as the ‘primaryframework’ for action (Shepherd,2004). Under the convention, the Approach is the basis for consideringall the goods and services provided to people by biodiversity and ecosystems (Secretariat of the Conventionfor Biological Diversity, 2000). According to the CBD, the EsA:”….
places human needs at the centre of biodiversity management. Itaims to manage the ecosystem, based on the multiple functions that ecosystemsperform and the multiple uses that are made of these functions. The ecosystemapproach does not aim for short term economic gains, but aims to optimize theuse of an ecosystem without damaging it ” ICZM processes:The over?concern with the principles of ‘ecosystem?basedmanagement’ as they applyto the coastal zone might lead to an additional aspect to both of them, beingoverlooked, namely that these ideas also need to be considered from a processperspective. That is they are as much about designing managementand governance processes as they are in helping us set the objectivesthat that current or future management and governance structures might deliver. There are a number of case studies and other initiatives from whichuseful lessons can be drawn. For example, The Monitoring Assessment Programmeand United Nations Environmental Programme (MAP/UNEP) has undertaken to implementan Ecosystem-based Approach at the regional scale of the Mediterranean, as astrategy for the comprehensive and integrated management of human activitiesaffecting the coastal regions ecosystem based on the best available scientificknowledge. Other case studies and reviews include the study about Balancing scienceand society through establishing indicators for integrated coastal zonemanagement in the Balearic Islands, Spain, the researchers explored by (Diedrich et al.
, 2010),the study showed the process by which indicators may be developed as tools forcommunicating science to decision-makers using the participatory approachdemonstrated by the Balearic Indicators and the initiative reflects a series ofcompromises considered necessary to achieve the objective of generating anindicator system that is scientifically viable, comparative internationally yetlocally relevant, and to facilitate its implementation, the research highlightsquestions regarding the utility of science for addressing current global issuesrelated to sustainability and why science often fails to promote change at thesocietal level. Other study by (Hills et al., 2009), about Landscape scale analysis of ecosystem riskand returns as a new tool for ICZM, theauthors emphasized that integratedmanagement requires landscape-level analysis of all ecosystem values and how itcan be useful in terms of setting ICZM priorities and in addressing localcoastal issues. The importance of the process perspective on ICZM hasrecently been emphasised in the Final Report of Short and Medium ?Term Priority ActionProgramme SMAPIII/UNEP Project, 2013. (The WayForward for the Mediterranean Coast), and more generally in the UNEPPublication on Ecosystem?based Management, 2007 -2013. Both seek to provide a way of understanding sustainable developmentas a sequence of ‘tangible levels of achievement’ that can both be planed forand used to monitor progress. Thus both publications use the term ‘Ordersof Outcome’ framework as a tool for assessing progress towardssustainable and integrated coastal zones management and development. Fourdifferent orders of outcome are listed and it is useful to reflect upon them inthe light of the ICZM principles as described below and summarized in (Figure): · FIRSTORDER outcomes involve creating a theright ‘enabling conditions’ for sustainable development to occur, and caninclude the setting down of principles of the ICZM, and the alignment ofinstitutional structures, priorities and funding streams to the goalsrepresented by these agreements.
· SECONDORDER outcomes concern achievingbehaviour change, presenting the involved training and awareness?raising, aswell as research. However, the behaviour change can only be achieved if it isunderpinned by a social learning process that must involve including thosetraining and capacity building activities in the context of a reflective phaseof piloting and testing. All ecosystem?based approaches are fundamentally adaptive in their character, andinvolve an important element of learning by doing or ‘community learning’. Ittherefore also include elements of problem focused ‘action research’ and trans?disciplinarily. · THIRDORDER outcomes involve ‘achievingresults’. The Cases should perhaps be viewed as open?air laboratoriesin which the ICZM principles and processes are tested even only partially. · FOURTHORDER outcomes involve ‘achievingsustainability’, and clearly involve achieving full integrated policy andmanagement approaches and lasting institutional reform. The outcomes from thiswork must set an agenda for the kinds of long?term change that are required totransform the particular examples of best?practice and success at the research level to a more generalpatterns of activities.