instruction.Glasser, identifies the teacher as the leader of the classroom. He believesthey need to work hard and effectively if they want to have successful students.He says that their role is have the students understand that by working hard inschool / home is worth it in the long run, i.e. acceptance in college,internships etc.
Which in turn will have a positive and successful influence ontheir lives. This is slightly different than Skinners theory where the studentsimmediately or almost immediately see the reward (extrinsic motivation), thistheory is more based on intrinsic motivation, influenced by the teacher. This leaves the question then of how does theteacher achieve this level of motivation for their students. Glasser says, youcan try and create positive relationships with the students. Have the studentsbecome comfortable with you, while of course maintain professional boundaries.So that they feel they can come to you as the teacher for mentoring andsupport. As well, the teacher can create relevant learning experiences that thestudents can use to demonstrate their success within your classroom. Howhis theory applies when developing lessons: When a teacher decides to practicechoice theory, they have to design the lesson in a way that satisfies the student’sneeds.
Glasser believes that this will allow the students to learn more andincrease their activeness within the classroom while reducing the amount of disruptiondue to interest in the lessons. He believed that students are able to connectand feel a sense of power or freedom and enjoy themselves in a safe learning environmentwhen teachers design lessons in his way. 1. Coercion: “Coercion is the practice of forcing anotherparty to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.” (Wikipedia – Coercion, n.
d.) He believes thatthis is minimized because it never inspires quality. He believes that studentsaren’t designed to behave using reward and punishment systems such as Skinners.Instead he believes that teacher should build up positive relations with thestudents and be an inspiring leader instead. 2. Quality: When the teacher focuses on quality, theexpectation increases. They expect mastery or a high level of understanding ofthe given concepts and encourage the students to re do their work and continuetrying until they have demonstrated a certain level of competence and highquality work.
While to some teachers this does seem harsh and de – motivating. Thestudents learn that they are capable of high quality work, they have a deeperunderstanding of what they were learning and in turn this will result in bettergrades thus in turn earning the benefits that come from higher grades and agood work ethic.3.
Self – evaluation: In this choice theory, self-evaluationis common. Students are provided with the information from the teachers andthen they take ownership of their learning by self-evaluating their own performance.In turn this promotes independence, free thinking, responsibility and it helpsthe student reach their goals while becoming efficient decision makers who takean active part in their own learning and education. Ithought this theory was relevant as it shows a theory in contrast to Skinners.Skinners theory is more based on extrinsic motivation and Glassers theory ismore based on intrinsic motivation.
Glassers five basic needs that aresurvival, love / belonging, power, fun and freedom seem to fit into my casefairly well. When I think about the student and what he was doing or in whatmanner he was behaving it really does fit into these needs. Especially the love/ belonging one that Glasser states is the key need. The student in focus wasdealing with a divorce, the teacher had said to me that she believe the studentfeels that he is blame for his parents to split up. This ties into love /belonging need, he may have felt his parents didn’t love him enough to staytogether and this left him with a feeling of where he belonged as he wanted tobe in Germany with his dad but as well he wanted to be in Denmark with hislife, friends and mum. This unsettledness resulted in a lot of turbulentbehaviour stemming from these basic needs.
As well with the power, fun andfreedom needs, I saw that a lot of behaviour also came from these needs. WhichI will explain further in my analysis. Ihave looked at Skinners theory from the early twentieth century, Glassers fromthe end of the twentieth century and now I will look in Alfie Kohn’s work from2006. Giving a few different theoretical perspectives from different timeperiods over the last 80 years.Alfiecritiques many aspects of what is the traditional education.
His main criticismfalls on the use of competition or external factors as motivation.Hebelieves that societies that are based on extrinsic motivations lose their effectivenessover time.Thingsthat he looks into and questions are the management system that take place inthe mainstream education. He says that positions of authority are unnaturallyscare and these systems assume that all people have this competitive natureinside of them when in fact he doesn’t is the case. He says that systems suchas the positive enforcement systems only encourage students and people to onlyseek out this positive enforcement rather than truly learn. This reflects backinto what my mentor teacher was saying that they would get too distracted bythe reward rather than the meaning or the requirement behind the reward system.He believes that in an ideal classroom, curiosity and cooperation are keyfactors.
He says the student’s curiosity is what should determine what istaught. This somewhat links into Glassers idea that we are led by 5 key needsand this influences what we learn. What differs here to Glassers principles ofhigh expectations is that he argues that standards should be kept very minimaland he is critical of standardized testing. He also says that a strict curriculumand homework aren’t beneficial to student needs. Kohnbelieves in a more traditional classroom room. He says that most teacher relytoo heavily on extrinsic motivation rather than more intrinsic factors.
Hebelieves that teachers should always keep cooperation as one of the key factorswithin the classroom but also says that when curiosity is nurtured, rewards andpunishments are not necessary.