In the
21st century power is essence of the world and it is the basic
necessity to uplifting the human life style as well as industrial and
agriculture growth. The socio economic growth of the country’s depend on the
un-interrupted supply of electricity Hence, the per capta electric consumption
of consumers is an indicator of socio economic condition of that country.
Pakistan is country where power shortfall is exist since last ten years.
Furthermore, the consumer faced 12hours load shedding on daily basis. In
addition, the causes of power shortfall is due non-technical losses on consumer
sites. The power supply distribution companies in Pakistan, does not have any
real time antitheft mechanism to controller electricity theft on consumer
premises. In this project, we will introduced an electricity theft detection
technique (ETDT) by Power Line communication technology to identify the power
thieving in consumer premises. Furthermore it is necessary to measure power
consumption and regulated various associated variables. Various losses have
been associated with power sector, these losses are very high when compared
with other developed countries. The current technical and non-technical losses
in transmission lines and distribution lines are much more as compare to other
losses in electricity infrastructure. Hence, losses can be reduce by usage of
an   efficient ETDT management services.
Electricity theft is at the epicenter of worries for developing economies all
over world, but electricity theft in Pakistan has substantial consequence on
Pakistan’s economy. The power theft is the major challenge for power utilities
throughout the world. In other words, illegal utilization of electricity without
the company’s consent. It is enough to destroy the entire power sector of
country.

 

 

 

1.1            
BACKGROUND
AND LITERATURE REVIEW

 

1.2.1

Energy theft can be in the form of deception such
as meter tampering, illegal connections (bypassing meter connections), physical
destruction of energy meters, etc. 
Energy theft cases are occurred in the most regions of the world.
Approximately 102 countries including Pakistan faced the electricity theft
concern due to poor infrastructure, political uncertainty, highly level corruption,
low level government efficiency, appointments of non-technical staff, and
deficiency of accountability, law and order situations. Pakistan is the country
where all natural resources are available for the generation of electricity,
but unfortunately there is lack of long term planning
for the generation of electricity and theft detection. 

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There are two types of losses but major one is
non-technical losses area of power sector. NTL is more difficult to measure
because there losses are frequently occurred at consumer premises and the power
supply companies has no recorded information to control these losses. NTL are
usually done by human being who is unaccountable for companies. TL are natural
losses occurred in power grid and these losses produced by physical structural
properties of power system.  

 

1.2.2     BY THE SURVEY OF LITERATURE

  

          By the survey
we studied that, electricity theft detection using the auxiliary CT (current
transformer) and tapping circuit interfaced with microcontroller. The pole
mounted current transformer on a service with an output of energy load
difference between them. If the difference is found the theft will
automatically detected and supply of energy will be tripped. This system is
used to over come the theft of electricity via by passing the energy meter and
hence it also controls the revenue losses and utility of the electricity
authorized.

                The
electrical power theft detection system is used to detect an unauthorized
tapping on distribution lines. Improved area of this system is a distribution
network. The recent system is not capable to locate the exact location of
tapping on electrical lines. This system is real time. This technique protect
distribution network from theft i.e. done by tapping wire. In the history,
various technique were used to detecting the location of direct tapping on  a feeder and finding illegal consumers of
electrical supply. On a same way, some non-technical measures such as detection
of consumers with specific load profiles and campaigning opposite to illegal
consumption were implemented to control electricity theft.

Some of the techniques (proposed worldwide) are described:

 

1.2.3 NON -TECHNICAL LOSSES:

 

A. Damaging i.e. misusing of meter to ensure the reading for lower
consumption.

 B. Mistakes in
technical losses calculation.

 C. hooking on LT lines.

D. Set the false readings by bribing meter readers.

 E. Ignored the unpaid
bills.

F. Faulty energy meters are used by the consumer to save
money.

G. Mistakes in billing and not giving the instant reading.

H. Consumers are not pay continuously for supply.

 

1.2.4 THEFT
OCCURS ON ENERGY METER:

 

A. Take an auxiliary connection on service wire.

B. Cutting the potential reference point in energy meters.

C. Changing readings of energy meter and switch off display
on current reading.

 D. Illegal opening of
cover on energy meter.

     

 

 

1.2            
AIM  AND OBJECTIVES

 

1.3.1 AIM OF
THE PROJECT

 

Aim of the project is to
determine the theft detection by using PLC and identify to sources that have
led to electricity failures.

 

1.3.2
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

            These project have the following
objectives:

1.      To understand the mechanism of
electricity failures.

2.      To develop a prototype model of
electricity theft detection technique (ETDT) using PLC.

3.      To make efficient management system
that will be help full to avoid electricity theft.

 

 

1.3            
SCOPE
OF WORK

 

This project
involves the study on knowledge acquisition of interfacing among PLC, ARDUINO,
GSM MODULE and other hardware to complete this project. The project achievement
is to design a system that will facilitate in monitoring the process of
ELECTRICITY THEFT DETECTION TECHNIQUE (ETDT) and to demonstrate how this system
can be used in WAPDA, K- ELECTRIC, etc.  

 

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