In PakistanMurders in the name of honour are prevalent, mostly in rural areas however someincidence are reported in urban cities of Pakistan.
Named differently accordingto region, Karo kari in Sindh, kala kali in Punjab, siyakari in Balochistan,and tor tora in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. according to a survey (Thomson ReutersFoundation Trust 2011) Pakistan is number three in the world most dangerouscountries for women. In Sindhthis is a deep rooted custom, the practice of karo kari is believe to wash offfamily dishonour, practiced largly in tribal areas of Kashmore,Khairpur, Shikarpur, sukkur, Ghotki and Jacobabad..In sindhiculture woman is considered as a property of man, woman are considered inferior to man and symbol offamily respect and she cant marry a man of her choice most of the time fatherdecide for her daughters marriage , when she commit adultery, demand fordivorce, If a girl is raped she isassumed to be a reason of shame for family, and she is killed to sustain familyhonour, even rumours of her smiling talking sitting calling to a man other thanhusband apart from any sexual relation,Many cases are reported for honourkilling where agricultural lands are main resource of income. So many peopleplot karo kari like an industry, karo kari is not considered as a crime, andmost of the time murderers are backed by family. In most cases the family ofaccused woman does not have any solid reasons of adultery. Even educatedfamilies where such a incidence occurs practice it and they sacrifice woman topreserve their family honour, or forced by social pressure.
Although it’s agender neutral killing but often women are killed, men most of the time runaway or they demand a women for marriageirresepective with whom that girl will be married sometime the groom is of herfathers age belonging to the family of woman , or approached by his relativefor compensation of money which is called as Qisas which is one of the deadlyevil of society which give a way to murderer to walk out with freedom, sometimethey offer land or cash.women doest have such alternatives. Exactstatistics is unknown due to under-reporting of such inciden because most ofthe time they hide it . according to Human Rights Commission of Pakistan 2012,every year 1000 women and girls are killed in Pakistan. According to Researchand Development for Human Resource for the year 2011 in 2012, 605 women and 115men were murdered in the name of karo kari.
According to official datapublished by Pakistani senate in 2004, the highest number of reported karo karicases were in Punjab, then in Sindh, then in North_West Frontier Province andthen in South_western Province of Baluchistan. According to Nafeesa shah,1998, In sindh Jacobabad is leading inhonour killings around 55 to 60 cases a month, she collected data from 1995_2004 from 1482 registered cases inwhich 16,00 plus killings accured, only 3% ended conviction because in thesecases there were no political interferenence, at most of the cases statejudiciary and human right activitist are helpless, and parliamentarian for whomthis system is survival don’t create laws against it.In islamkilling is not allowed in any way, karo kari is unislamic practice. If we goback and try to find out the root of honour killing in India it may evolved from custom of sati.According to the custom of satti when a man died woman burn herself with herhusband. During British rule in India Sir Charles James Napier ban thispractice and made a law of punishment. But still that custom was continued.
,when he arrived in sindh in 1848 he bannedkaro kari in Sindh so at that time karokari was in sindhi system. Literature is one of the way to study history, Insindh “Shah jo Risalo” is a poeticcompendium by poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai(1689_1752) he narrated sevenstories of seven ueens of Sindh, none of the story is mentioned with karo kari. Now question is how it became a custom ofsindhi culture. It is assumed that its came from baloch tribal areas as theyhave intense attitude toward woman.
Because of more empowerning resources andgood supply of water in Sindh baloch people started to come to sindh, as soonas Baloch people moved to sindh cultural changes occurred. And karo kari custompenetrated in sindhi culture, and today in sindh leading honour killing occursin Jacobabad which is highly populated baloch city.Jirga play anpivoted role in the judgement of honour killing, and its like a decision makingassembly of tribe or tribal council who are most of the time uneducated anddon’t have knowledge of human rights law, which is a result of feudal socialstructure and politically influenced culture, particularly those who areinfluencial like sardar chief of triberun jirga,who has unchallenged authority and most of the time they are themember of parliamentarian and state try its best to not to take any actionagainst them. most of the time state support jirga system and influencialpeople violates free and transparent probe if humen right activitist raisetheir voice.
Both parties agrees the decision of sardar, each party nominatesrepresentatives or advisors, the advisors have full knowledge of murders andthey disclose it in jirga , chief discuss it with advisors and then he announcethe verdict in publicly. Jirgais illegal in Pakistan, but according to Asian Human Rights Commission, 2010 “therule of tradition is often more powerful than the rule of law”. In sindh jirgasystem is less potent as compare to Balochistan and north west frontierof Pakistan, its very common in ruralparts of Pakistan because it’s a cheaper, faster and more lkasting alternativeto settle legal cases and disputes. althoughfamilies can decide independeblty between the four walls of a house to murder awoman driven by family customs and traditions, in rural areas jirga is the onlyjudiciary and administrative forum. Jirga hasnegative impact on society and perpetrator not only escape punishment but alsobecome a hero ih his society which encourage others to kill women(daughter,wife, sister) in the name of honour.International human right law considerkaro kari as a social crime.According to UN (Convention on the Elimination ofAll Forms of Discrimination against Women) CEDAW women has right to choose partnerof her life. It bound state to prevent and protect women from gender basedviolence.
It is clearly stated in article 4 of CEDAW “states should condemnviolence against women and should not invole any custom, tradition or religiousconsiderationto avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination” .United nations has a clear strategy for human rights especially women rightsdeprivation, UNO has a organize machinery , they organized committees. officeof the high commissioner of human rights(OHCHR) trying to elevate human rightsthrough reforms. United nations role is not effective because of local powersand states corrupt system at micro level. Here local NGOs are more effectivethan UNO , NGOs pressurize government by street protest, and force corruptgovernment system to conduct a transparent probe. On 1st April 2006,gender crime cell was established in National Bureau to tackle violence againstwomen. National Bureau welcome NGOs if they raise their voice are obliged toprovide them protection.Honour killing is not an easy battle towin.
I believe through education andparliament we can eradicate this evil. More education there will be moreempowerment and better life, increasing unemployement means increasedfrustration, crime, anger, inflation in the system. All these factors leads toviolence against women. For example agriculturecontributes largest sector of economy in Pakistan, and largest source offoreign exchange earning.By studying agricultural sciences or livestock sciences which is a subsection ofagriculture by vocational training orother programs one can multiply the production of crop many folds, educationgives awareness of human rights.Unfortunately in Pakistan literacy rate is 58% and in Sindh it is 48% according to Economic Survey ofPakistan (2016-2017).
Pakistan’s public expenditure on education as percentageof its GDP is estimated at 2.3% in the fiscal year 2016, in 2015 it was 2.2,making it the lowest in the region, and one of the twelve countries who spend2% of their GDP on education sector. So policy for education must be revived. Othertool is parliament, majority of parliamentarian are feudal lords to whom jirgasystem suitsmentarian so they can bring gender dignity for women at domesticlevel, good policies must be implemented so that international treaties,declarations, protocol and covenants canbe ratified, like, , so there is need ofgood parliapolicy makers who can bring policies which can protect women rights such as: the International Covenant on Civil andPolitical Rights of 1966; the International Covenant on Economic, Social andCultural Rights of 1966; the Convention on the Elimination of All FormsofDiscrimination Against Women of 1977; the Fourth World Conference on Women’sBeijingDeclaration of 1995, and the 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme ofAction of the World Conference on Human Rights.In nutshellit has revealed that honour killing is not solely result of customs andtraditions but many other factors are contributing, like male dominancy, roleof law enforcing institutes, jirga system, feudalism, illiteracy,unemployement, qisas laws. All these factors contributes violence against woman.It’s most opf the time backed by politicians, feudal lords and police.
Societyneeds to change their attitude through education, media, institutes, social andfamily circle. It must be encouraged inthe biggest forum of Pakistan that is Parliament. Jirga system has to bebanned, because jirga system gives immunity to the murderers especially ininterior sindh. It’s the state institutions, in particular police, lawenforcement agencies are responsible to decide what punishment must be given tomurderers not of chief of a tribe who doesnot gives justice to victims nor punishment to killer.
Jirga systemencourages killers in the custom of karo kari. And directly they pressurize lawenforcing agencies to deal the case with leniency, and give many ways to give asafe way to the killers so that they can escape from state punishment