In Pakistan
Murders in the name of honour are prevalent, mostly in rural areas however some
incidence are reported in urban cities of Pakistan. Named differently according
to region, Karo kari in Sindh, kala kali in Punjab, siyakari in Balochistan,
and tor tora in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. according to a survey (Thomson Reuters
Foundation Trust 2011) Pakistan is number three in the world most dangerous
countries for women. In Sindh
this is a deep rooted custom, the practice of karo kari is believe to wash off
family dishonour, practiced largly in 
tribal areas of  Kashmore,
Khairpur, Shikarpur, sukkur, Ghotki and 

In sindhi
culture woman is considered as a property of man, woman are  considered inferior to man and symbol of
family respect and she cant marry a man of her choice most of the time father
decide for her daughters marriage , when she commit adultery, demand for
divorce,  If a girl is raped she is
assumed to be a reason of shame for family, and she is killed to sustain family
honour, even rumours of her smiling talking sitting calling to a man other than
husband apart from any sexual relation,Many cases are reported for honour
killing where agricultural lands are main resource of income. So many people
plot karo kari like an industry, karo kari is not considered as a crime, and
most of the time murderers are backed by family. In most cases the family of
accused woman does not have any solid reasons of adultery. Even educated
families where such a incidence occurs practice it and they sacrifice woman to
preserve their family honour, or forced by social pressure. Although it’s a
gender neutral killing but often women are killed, men most of the time run
away  or they demand a women for marriage
irresepective with whom that girl will be married sometime the groom is of her
fathers age belonging to the family of woman , or approached by his relative
for compensation of money which is called as Qisas which is one of the deadly
evil of society which give a way to murderer to walk out with freedom, sometime
they offer land or cash.women doest have such alternatives.

statistics is unknown due to under-reporting of such inciden because most of
the time they hide it . according to Human Rights Commission of Pakistan 2012,
every year 1000 women and girls are killed in Pakistan. According to Research
and Development for Human Resource for the year 2011 in 2012, 605 women and 115
men were murdered in the name of karo kari. According to official data
published by Pakistani senate in 2004, the highest number of reported karo kari
cases were in Punjab, then in Sindh, then in North_West Frontier Province and
then in South_western Province of Baluchistan. According to Nafeesa shah,
1998,  In sindh Jacobabad is leading in
honour killings around 55 to 60 cases a month, she collected data from 1995
_2004  from 1482 registered cases in
which 16,00 plus killings accured, only 3% ended conviction because in these
cases there were no political interferenence, at most of the cases state
judiciary and human right activitist are helpless, and parliamentarian for whom
this system is survival don’t create laws against it.

In islam
killing is not allowed in any way, karo kari is unislamic practice. If we go
back and try to find out the root of honour killing  in India it may evolved from custom of sati.
According to the custom of satti when a man died woman burn herself with her
husband. During British rule in India Sir Charles James Napier ban this
practice and made a law of punishment. But still that custom was continued.,
when he arrived in sindh in 1848  he banned
karo kari in Sindh  so at that time karo
kari was in sindhi system. Literature is one of the way to study history, In
sindh “Shah jo Risalo”  is a poetic
compendium by poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai(1689_1752) he narrated seven
stories of seven ueens of Sindh, none of the story is mentioned with karo kari.
 Now question is how it became a custom of
sindhi culture. It is assumed that its came from baloch tribal areas as they
have intense attitude toward woman. Because of more empowerning resources and
good supply of water in Sindh baloch people started to come to sindh, as soon
as Baloch people moved to sindh cultural changes occurred. And karo kari custom
penetrated in sindhi culture, and today in sindh leading honour killing occurs
in Jacobabad which is highly populated baloch city.

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Jirga play an
pivoted role in the judgement of honour killing, and its like a decision making
assembly of tribe or tribal council who are most of the time uneducated and
don’t have knowledge of human rights law, which is a result of feudal social
structure and politically influenced culture, particularly those who are
influencial  like sardar chief of tribe
run jirga,who has unchallenged authority and most of the time they are the
member of parliamentarian and state try its best to not to take any action
against them. most of the time state support jirga system and influencial
people violates free and transparent probe if humen right activitist raise
their voice. Both parties agrees the decision of sardar, each party nominates
representatives or advisors, the advisors have full knowledge of murders and
they disclose it in jirga , chief discuss it with advisors and then he announce
the verdict in publicly. Jirga
is illegal in Pakistan, but according to Asian Human Rights Commission, 2010 “the
rule of tradition is often more powerful than the rule of law”. In sindh jirga
system is less potent as compare to Balochistan and north west frontier
of Pakistan,  its very common in rural
parts of Pakistan because it’s a cheaper, faster and more lkasting alternative
to settle legal cases and disputes. although
families can decide independeblty between the four walls of a house to murder a
woman driven by family customs and traditions, in rural areas jirga is the only
judiciary and administrative forum. Jirga has
negative impact on society and perpetrator not only escape punishment but also
become a hero ih his society which encourage others to kill women(daughter,
wife, sister) in the name of honour.

International human right law consider
karo kari as a social crime.According to UN (Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women) CEDAW women has right to choose partner
of her life. It bound state to prevent and protect women from gender based
violence. It is clearly stated in article 4 of CEDAW “states should condemn
violence against women and should not invole any custom, tradition or religious
considerationto avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination” .
United nations has a clear strategy for human rights especially women rights
deprivation, UNO has a organize machinery , they organized committees. office
of the high commissioner of human rights(OHCHR) trying to elevate human rights
through reforms. United nations role is not effective because of local powers
and states corrupt system at micro level. Here local NGOs are more effective
than UNO , NGOs pressurize government by street protest, and force corrupt
government system to conduct a transparent probe. On 1st April 2006,
gender crime cell was established in National Bureau to tackle violence against
women. National Bureau welcome NGOs if they raise their voice are obliged to
provide them protection.

Honour killing is not an easy battle to
win. I believe through education  and
parliament we can eradicate this evil. More education there will be more
empowerment and better life, increasing unemployement means increased
frustration, crime, anger, inflation in the system. All these factors leads to
violence against women. For example  agriculture
contributes largest sector of economy in Pakistan, and largest source of
foreign exchange earning.By studying agricultural sciences or  livestock sciences which is a subsection of
agriculture  by vocational training or
other programs one can multiply the production of crop many folds, education
gives awareness of  human rights.
Unfortunately in Pakistan literacy rate is 58%  and in Sindh it is 48% according to Economic Survey of
Pakistan (2016-2017). Pakistan’s public expenditure on education as percentage
of its GDP is estimated at 2.3% in the fiscal year 2016, in 2015 it was 2.2,
making it the lowest in the region, and one of the twelve countries who spend
2% of their GDP on education sector. So policy for education must be revived. Other
tool is parliament, majority of parliamentarian are feudal lords to whom jirga
system suitsmentarian so they can bring gender dignity for women at domestic
level, good policies must be implemented so that international treaties,
declarations, protocol and  covenants can
be ratified,  like, , so there is need of
good parliapolicy makers who can bring policies which can protect women rights such as: the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights of 1966; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights of 1966; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
ofDiscrimination Against Women of 1977; the Fourth World Conference on Women’s
BeijingDeclaration of 1995, and the 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of
Action of the World Conference on Human Rights.

In nutshell
it has revealed that honour killing is not solely result of customs and
traditions but many other factors are contributing, like male dominancy, role
of law enforcing institutes, jirga system, feudalism, illiteracy,
unemployement, qisas laws. All these factors contributes violence against woman.
It’s most opf the time backed by politicians, feudal lords and police. Society
needs to change their attitude through education, media, institutes, social and
family circle.  It must be encouraged in
the biggest forum of Pakistan that is Parliament. Jirga system has to be
banned, because jirga system gives immunity to the murderers especially in
interior sindh. It’s the state institutions, in particular police, law
enforcement agencies are responsible to decide what punishment must be given to
murderers not of chief of a tribe who doesnot  
gives justice to victims nor punishment to killer. Jirga system
encourages killers in the custom of karo kari. And directly they pressurize law
enforcing agencies to deal the case with leniency, and give many ways to give a
safe way to the killers so that they can escape from state punishment




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