In what ways can global climate change be considered a cause ofviolent conflict?(2500 words)INTRODUCTION: (~400 WORDS) Anthropogenic climate change(due togreenhouse gases) has been a growing concern in the past century(especiallysince the industrial revolution? How long exactly? Data? Al Gore’s book in2006an inconvenient truth?) that could lead to inter and intra national conflicts all over the world as(climate change) applies pressure on natural resources and enhances naturaldisasters.The aim ofthis essay is to detail/list/address the primary ways in which climate changecan, is and will be a major cause of violent conflict and(examine whatgovernments could/should do) (to take into consideration the ‘solutions’adopted/adoptable) to slow down the/those/these terrible consequences.Startingwith the rise of sea levels and storm surges and the inadequate organization/responseof governments; the melting of (Arctic) glaciers(with a particular interest inthe Arctic ones) and its (social and political/trade related) consequences; thechanging in precipitation patterns and its importance in geopoliticalrelations(especially for India and China); finally going through theunsustainable use of energy and water resources (too often improperlyassociated with overpopulation) and their management.Thisessay is therefore going to try to/and demonstrate that climate change isaffecting international relations and is often cause of violent conflict, butwith the right measures it is possible to prevent the worst and look intocreating stable and sustainable global communities. BODY: (~1700 WORDS) HOW I THINK CLIMATE CHANGEIS AFFECTING CLIMATE CONFLICT. PICK 4/5 WAYS AND EXPLORE THEM IN DETAIL AND(END WITH) THE WAYS WITH WHICH GOVERNMENTS ARE/COULD IMPROVE THE SITUATION : Risingsea levels and Rising storm surges 1. It will contaminateour drinking water: As the rising sea crawls farther and farther up the shore,in many places it will seep into the freshwater sources in the ground that manycoastal areas rely on for their drinking water.
These underground watersources, called aquifers, are crucial springs of freshwater — in fact, groundwateraccounts for most of the planet’s freshwater. Saltwater is unsafe todrink, and while it is possible to remove the salt from water, doing so is anexpensive and complicated process. Some communities are already investingin costly desalination plants in anticipation of hard times ahead.
San DiegoCounty in drought-stricken California is building the largest seawater desalination plant in the westernhemisphere, and the MIT Technology Review reports that the plant will cost about $1billion. These kinds of costly projects may be unrealistic for coastalcommunities on a large scale.2.
It will interfere with farming: Those same freshwater sources weuse for drinking also supply the water we use for irrigation. The problems hereare the same: The intruding sea could make these groundwater sources saltier.Saltwater can stunt or even kill crops, but creating freshwater from saltwateris a costly and unsustainable practice. In a twist of irony, recent researchhas suggested that pumping freshwater from the ground for human use mayactually be contributing to a rise in sea levels. Afterthe groundwater has been used — for drinking, irrigation, or other industrialpurposes — it is often discarded into the ocean, where it adds to thealready-growing volume of water lapping at our shores. 3. It will hurt the economy: The tourism and real-estate industriesin coastal areas are likely to take a hit as prime beachfront properties andrecreational areas are washed away by rising waters. This is a fact that someinvolved in these industries are finding hard to swallow.
North Carolina is a prime example of theconflict between climate science and economic interests. Several years ago, ateam of North Carolina scientists published a report predicting a three-footincrease in sea level by the end of the century — bad news for the popular (andoften expensive) North Carolina beaches. Pressured by economically minded localresidents and real-estate stakeholders, the North Carolina governmenteventually passed a law banning coastal policymakers from using acceleratedsea-level rise predictions to make decisions for their communities. But suchlaws don’t erase the fact that flooded beaches are no attraction for touristsor property buyers who, in the coming years, may see fit to take their businessto less vulnerable areas. Meltingglaciers Changingprecipitation patterns Unsustainableuse of energy and water resources(too often wrongly associated tooverpopulation) and wrong management of them (Too manypeople p.ix) … are spreading the false messages that poor women fertilityand..
are to blame for overpopulation and all the problems related to earthwarming?.The extensiveand expanding use of oil (and other hydrocarbons) has led to increasedemissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and warmer Earth surfacetemperatures, together with a wide range of more or less obvious modificationsof the global environment. (OIL, WATER AND CLIMATE p.
5)… simplyput, the population explosion coupled with more efficient technologies iscreating an ever-increasing demand for oil and water. To meet this demand,people are driven to use unsustainable levels of oil and water, which leads toa growing global scarcity of this resources. Such scarcity, which may well beexacerbated by the changing climate, is creating major societal andgeopolitical challenges that have the potential to generate serious conflicts.(OIL, WATER AND CLIMATE p.5) … the use of one resource is accelerating theextraction of the other.Simply put,oil is too important to be neglected in the study of international security.Yet this does not mean that the world is overrun with resource wars. (Fuelingthe Fire) CONCLUSION?Arethe existing institutions of global governance adequate for addressing climatechange?? Climate changethreatens a large share of the world’s population and gilding the bitter pillwould be an act of irresponsibility, denial or intentional deceit.
(ClimateBarbarians at the Gate??A critique ofapocalyptic narratives on ‘climate refugees’ Giovanni Bettini)In the classicChinese text The Art of War, Sun Tzuwrites that there are five factors that must be considered before any militaryaction: weather, terrain, discipline (including supply lines), politics andleadership. …(Global warring p.11)(GLOBALWARRING p.12) Examples of situations where climate and weather have beendeciding factors in several major historical turning points.(example of ukgrowing grapes and having wineries and when it got too cold invading an area inthe south of France that could grow it)(GLOBALWARRING p.13) Retired U.
S. admirals and generals published a 2007 report “National security and the threat of climatechange” in which they conclude, among other things, that ‘climate changeacts as a threat multiplier for instability in some of the most volatileregions of the world.’ And ‘projected climate change poses a serious threat toAmerica’s national security.’CLIMATECHANGE/ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE(GLOBALWARRING p.15) … but one cannot say that tragedy in New Orleans (HurricaneKatrina) was caused by climate change alone.
Curbing climate change withoutaddressing the myriad ways we interact with our environment, including infrastructureplanning, water management, and disaster response, will not stop other “Katrinas” from happening, although it may stop thefrequency from increasing as climate change is predicted to result in more ofthis sort of extreme weather activity.Pag.35 GlobalWarring, the consequences of Katrina(2005) are influencing not just the US butthe whole Globe.
Pag.51London Floods Global Warring p.54Portugal suing Spain for “stealing” its water Global Warring Where??Global Warring Oil disruptions in US gulf coast- China’s reaction-closer toRussia Later, Gore meets with people whohave suffered through terrible and super-charged storms, such as recenttyphoons in the Pacific. He lays clear the science that climate change iswarming our oceans, providing extra fuel to make storms like Irma, Harvey,Sandy, and Maria more powerful. In these spots, his science is dead on.
CONCLUSIONS: (~500 WORDS) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Paskal, C.(2010), Global warring: howenvironmental, economic, and political crises will redraw the world map. NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan. Gautier, C.
(2008), Oil, water and climate: anintroduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bettini, G.(2013) “Climate Barbarians at the Gate?” A Critique of Apocalyptic Narrativeson Climate Refugees’ Geoforum, Vol. 45. Colgan, Joe D.
(2013) ‘Fueling the Fire: Pathways from Oil to War’, International Security,Vol. 38, No. 2, Fall, pp. 147–180.
Ehrlich, Paul& Anne Ehrlich (2013) ‘Can a Collapse of Global Civilization be Avoided?’Proceedings of the Royal Society). Available here:http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org Mazo, J(2010), Climate Conflict: How Global Warming Threatens Security and What toDo About It Routledge.
?Dalby, Simon(2012) ‘Climate Change and Environmental Security’, in Paul D. Williams (ed),Security Studies: An Introduction (London and New York: Routledge, 2012).