In 1990’s, Yugoslavia broke up. Prime Minister Ante Markovi?tried to shift to a market economy. The socialists within the country lost elections to ethnic nationalists in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. Slovenia and Croatia both declared their independence on 25 June 1991 for Yugoslavia. The next day, the Yugoslav People’s Army 13th Corps moved towards Slovenia’s borders. Local Slovenians constructed barricades to prevent the YPA from entering. The Slovenian barricades successfully blocked the YPA from entering the country. On 1 March 1991,a battle ensued in the town of  Pakrac, Croatia. The leadership of the  Yugoslav army met with the Presidency in an attempt to convince them to declare a state of emergency to allow for the YPA to take control of the country. Yugoslav army chief Veljko Kadijevi? declared:”An insidious plan has been drawn up to destroy Yugoslavia. Stage one is civil war. Stage two is foreign intervention. Then puppet regimes will be set up throughout Yugoslavia.” Kadijevi?  implied that the new independence-advocating governments were puppets of the West. Croatian delegate Stjepan Mesi? accused the Serb army commander Kadijevi? of attempting to create a Greater Serbia and stated, “That means war!”. A vote was taken to enact martial law to allow for military to end the independence advocating governments in Croatia and Slovenia by providing protection for the minority Serbs within the country. But the Bosnian delegate, Bogi? Bogi?evi?, voted against it. In Croatia, an independence referendum was held on 2 May 1991. 93.24% voted for independence. The independence of Croatia was declared on 25, June 1991. With the Plitvice Lakes incident of early April 1991, the Croatian War of Independence broke out between the Croatian government and the rebel ethnic Serbs of the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina who were heavily backed by the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People’s Army. On 1 April 1991, the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina, the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, and Baranja and Western Srijem claimed independence to form Republic of Serbian Krajina. In November 1991, ethnic tensions between Croats and Serbs became violent when the Yugoslav army entered the town of Vukovar, Croatia. The Yugoslav army and Serbian paramilitaries devastated the town in urban warfare. Serb paramilitaries committed acts of atrocities against Croats, killing over 200.  After some fighting, Croats compromised with rebel Serbs to gain the favor western powers, including NATO and the UN. From 1991 to 1992, the situation in  Bosnia and Herzegovina grew heated. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s parliament had a Bosniak faction and minority Serb and Croat factions. The nationalist leader Radovan Karadži? of the largest Serb faction in the parliament, gave a warning to the Bosnian parliament if it decides to hold a referendum and break away from Yugoslavia. On 9 January 1992, Bosnian Serb factions declared a separate Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina which was later called, The Republic of Srpska.The independence referendum was proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina and was completely ignored. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 3 March 1992. On the same day, Bosnian Serbs declared independence again. Bosnian Serbs started to take military action by sieging Sarajevo and attacking other cities.


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