Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, are all part of the great apes family. Human always see chimpanzees as their closest living relatives. Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are widespread in the forested parts of West, Central, and East Africa. Pygmy chimpanzees, or bonobos (P. paniscus), are restricted to the swampy lowland forests of the Zaire basin. Despite their names, common chimpanzees are no longer common, and pygmy chimpanzees are no smaller than the other species (Cumberlidge).Chimpanzees have fission-fusion societies. This means the size of their social group changes as time passes and they move throughout the environment. For example, they merge into group when they are sleeping. Then, they forage in small groups during daytime. All chimpanzees belong to a community that consists of 15-150 members and some female chimpanzees associate with more than one community. Within a community, chimpanzees travel and feed in parties that vary in size, and rarely all be together. Their part size depends on the numbers of food, like fruits. When there are huge amounts of fruits, parties are larger and they will gather at large fruiting sites. However, when the fruits supplies are limited, individuals of chimpanzees form a smaller community because they want to avoid competition for food. In addition, when males chimpanzees are with estrous females, they will form their own parties which average size is 3-10 (Watts).On the other hand, from dawn to dusk is the time when chimpanzees are active. They use at least half of the 12 hour period for feeding. They eat variety of plants and fruits (as much as 20 plants species a day and 300 a year), including fruit with leaves, seeds, flowers, pith, bark, and other plant parts. However, fruits supplies are not stable all over the year. When fruits supplies are limited, chimpanzees tend to eat leaves and other non fruit items. Apart from eating fruits and plants, chimpanzees also eat foods of animal origin, including insects such as termites and meat from vertebrates. It may take up to 5 percent of the feeding time when chimpanzees are digesting the animal. Chimpanzees always hunt in groups and males hunt are more than females, their most common animal prey for chimpanzees are monkey (Watts).When chimpanzees come to feeding, it is mostly an individual affair but not including meat eating. Male Chimpanzees sometime fight over for dead animal body after they capture and higher ranking males occasionally steal meat from the lower rankings’. However, it is common to see chimpanzees beg and share the meat peacefully. Sometimes possessors passively let others take pieces of carcasses. Other time, possessor actively give meats to others. Male chimpanzees are usually the possessors and they share food with other males in the allies and with their grooming partners. This shows reciprocity in meat sharing take place between males. Female often receive meat from males (Watts). Lastly, The use of tools to obtain some foods has been documented across all chimpanzee populations. Sticks, rocks, grass, and leaves are all commonly used materials that are modified into tools and used to acquire and eat honey, termites, ants, nuts, and water. For instance, they use tools to extract honey from the hives of stingless bees, use short sticks stripped of their leaves, twigs, and bark to most effectively scoop it out of the hive. Further, to extract honey from the hives of aggressive African honeybees, chimpanzees use significantly longer and thinner sticks to avoid the painful stings of these bees. In a similar fashion, chimpanzees strip the leaves off of long, thin sticks and use these to extract ants from ground nests. All of these application requires certain amount of skill, practice before mastering the technique to use the tools (“Chimpanzee”). I visited the Oakland zoo and there are many different primates I can observe. I chose to observe chimpanzees because they have a close relationship with human and we can find many similarities with each other. From my observation, the first thing I noticed is their living environment. The zoo tries to resemble the natural habitat where chimpanzees should be living. Although the chimpanzees are living in a metal/glass cage, inside the cage has features (like rocks, bushes, trees, ropes, and wood pieces) that make chimpanzees think they are living in a forest or the wild.Another thing I noticed is chimpanzees live in groups and they chew leaves. They do not walk up straight very often. Thus, their spine are quite stiff  because they do use the back of their body when they are moving around. Further, when the chimpanzees are playing and swinging around, they make loud noise I believe they are communicating with each other. On the other hand, I noticed chimpanzees like to touch each other when they are meeting. I saw they hold hands and take care of each other. I think they are being friendly with one another chimpanzees and maintain a good relationship with them. I then observe their facial gestures. I found out that they are like human that they will show express their feeling through facial gesture, for example, one of the chimpanzees did not share the fruits, another chimpanzees immediately compress its lips to show anger. It is funny that as a human, we show our teeth and smile to others stand for happiness. However, chimpanzees show their teeth to show anger. Also, I observed a couple of young chimpanzees in the cage. Those young chimpanzees were running and jumping around and they looked like very playful toward each other. When the young got tired, they just jump on their mother’s back and rest. Both genders of chimpanzees look very similar, I differentiate the male and female chimpanzees by their size. Male chimpanzees’ body size are bigger than female. Moreover, I noticed chimpanzees have no tails but they have opposable thumbs on both of their hands and feet. Chimpanzees eat  both plant and animal origin but I noticed the zoo only provide plants to them. Lastly, I paid attention to the chimpanzees’ usage of tool. During my observation, I actually did not find they have utilize any tools. 

x

Hi!
I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Click here