How to build a smart factory AnandHarigopal Suyambu Amnbihai(20683) Mastersin Mechanical EngineeringHochschuleRhein WaalKleve Date of submission 30/01/2018 IntroductionProduction has taken varioustransformations, starting from the first industrial revolution where steamengines and water turbines reduced human effort and led path for the mechanicalproduction process. During the second industrial revolution conveyer belt andsplit of work led to mass production. It is that point of time when scientificmanagement was introduced. Then the automation played its role in the thirdindustrial revolution by the invention of the programable logic circuit. CNCmachines were also introduced during the third industrial revolution.
When itwas believed that the production process is optimized to its maximum level, thecyber physical systems and the Internet of Things gave way for the fourthindustrial revolution, “The Smart Factory”. This paper will deal with what asmart factory is? Its features and characteristics and the key physicalcomponents to construct a smart factory. What is a Smart factory? Afterthe industrial revolution, automation in production has achieved a tremendousgrowth. The next giant step in production will be construction of smart factorywhich uses the concept of industry 4.0 and artificial intelligence. Smart factorieswork on the principle of interaction between the physical object and thecontrol software which are interlinked by Internet of Things (IoT). In this theinformation technology is interlinked with the operational technology, rightfrom the start of inventory control till the delivery of the fully finishedobject.
In some necessary places the robot interacts with the human. All thedata are digitalized and stored in the database for future reference. Thesefactories are so flexible that the production processes could be varied automaticallyaccording to the product being produced which is controlled by the centralized cloudnetwork. By this highly standardized production process, highly precise and high-qualityproducts is delivered with high fill rate and high variance.
Smart factory featuresDigital supplynetwork Toconstruct a smart factory a central hub of digital supply network is necessary.Unlike the traditional production supply chain, the centralized digital supplynetwork can interact between various supply chain systems and the productionprocess can be customized. This helps in achieving a highly flexible productionand supply chain system. All the information’s are collected, processed andtransmitted by this digital core, which decides the sequence of operations tobe carried out and hence the line production system can be eliminated.
People as keyplayers Inmanual and semiautomatic production process the split of human resource andutilization of the machineries determines the efficiency of the process. In asmart factory each employee’s skill set is fed in the central digital coresystem and once the employee enters the work place the system identifies theworker (with a barcode or magnetic strips) and allots work according to hisskills. It also monitors the work done by the worker and provides him withappropriate tools.
Ergonomics of the worker is also monitored and providesrecommendations to ease of work. Distributedintelligence Thecentral control system is then decentralized, and the information are send tothe sub artificial intelligence, which splits the work and get it done. Themain central system sends the product specification to the subsystem. Thesubsystem then makes autonomous decision and starts the process by controllingthe drives, sequence and operations. The artificial intelligence continuouslymonitors the changing requirements and working conditions and adopts itselfaccording to the atmosphere.
There should be sufficient capacity to producehigh variance in products. Open standards A smartfactory must always have fixed and open standard, which is one of the 5Sprinciple (standardization). These standards should be the same all over theprocess and system. Once the standards are decided, there should be nodeviation from the standards to avoid malfunctioning or production of lowquality products. The standards of the Ethernet and connections should also be standardized.Two machines with two different standards will interact between them which arenot understandable by each other and produces high scrap or rework. Virtual reality Thecomplete elements and process of the smart factory are in virtual reality timerepresentation.
All the virtual parts interact with the physical components toperform the operation. For instance, the central hub collects all theinformation from the surrounding through software and sensors. These data arethen send to the hub system through Ethernet and processed. The feedback issend to the control system and the above procedure repeats without any interventionof humans.
Lifecyclemanagement As thecomputer system decides the process to be carried out, it analyses with variousdata in nature and finds the easiest and the efficient way to solve it. Hencethe development or planning time, setting time, process time and cost can alsobe reduced significantly. The customer can also easily track his product whenit is getting manufactured.
Variance of the products been produced can havegood scope with minimal non-value-added time. Smart factory characteristicsConnected: Themain characteristic of a smart factory is its connectivity of the material withthe process, relationship between the departments of the factory, interlinkbetween the customer, supplier and production process along with the capabilityof Artificial Intelligence to take decisions in real time. Sensors should besetup in all possible sub system to extract data and keep the control systemupdated. The system also retrieves the historic data of the past and relatesthem with the current data. It should also retrieve information from thecustomer and the supplier end to create a highly efficient supply chain andnetwork efficiency. Optimized Thefactory should be designed in such a way that all the process should beoptimized to have its least process time.
Automation should be given higherimportance and human interaction should be reduced as much as possible. In the upcomingyears energy consumption is also more important, so renewable energy sourcesshould be preferred. The other two things to be noticed is quality and wastage.Highly precise and high-quality products should be produced with minimumwastage as possible. All these optimizations will automatically reduce the costof the product. Optimization should also be done in setup time by implementingSMED, having optimal lead time and having minimal inventory and stock.
Transparent All thereal-time data should be transparent for decision making. When the process and dataare transparent, the faults can be found easily and rectified. It is possiblefor the system to provide with notifications and alerts. It also helps thecustomers to track their products and monitor the process. Proactive Precautionsshould be made before an issue or failure occur. Due to the transparency of theprocess, decisions can be made before the fault.
It also includes monitoringthe restocking, inventory, quality issues, maintenance and safety. The historicdata’s can also be used as benchmark for maintenance and prevent breakdown. Thishelps in reducing the down time of machines. Agile Due toflexibility of the smart factory, scheduling of the operations and materialrequirements are planned automatically and executed. Then the data are crosschecked with data of real time, and the system updates automatically. Advancedsmart factories should be capable to plan the requirements according to thechange of product.
The best possible way should be selected by the system, sothat the setup time, scheduling time and changeover time can be optimized. Process within asmart factory Manufacturing Operations Additive manufacturing helps in producing rapid prototype and low volume products. Advanced scheduling and planning reduces waste and cycle time using real time inventory and production data. Autonomous robots can be used in recurring process which is repeated and again with high accuracy.
Digital twin can be used to integrate the predictive analysis by digitalization of operation. Warehouse operations Augmented reality assists humans in picking and positioning the articles. Autonomous robots do all warehouse operations with the help of artificial intelligence. Inventory tracking Sensors can be used to know the real-time position of the raw material, their storage in warehouse, their stock, current work status and tracking of finished products. Analytics to reduce the inventory, to monitor them and automatically order them when there is demand. Quality Optical based analysis systems to be used to find defects. Equipment monitoring to find the defects in the machine which produces the product.
Special sensors which identifies the flaws and does the quality check. Maintenance Augmented reality, the robotic system which helps the maintenance people in repairing and maintaining the equipment. Sensors to detect the malfunction of the machine and conduct the predictive maintenance. Environmental, safety and health Sensors to monitor the health of the person and send notifications in times of emergency or saturation limits. Sensors to predict the environmental changes and take precautions before the system gets affected. Sensors to monitor the machines to prevent accidents due to machine failures. Key physical components of a smart factorySensors Sensorsare detection devices which monitors the machine around the clock and providesdigital data for the system. Countless sensors are available in market, but thesensors characterized according to the application should be used to monitorthe process.
· Thermalsensor (thermometer, thermocouple, pyrometer, net radiometer, etc.)· Pressuresensor (barometer, pressure gauge, piezometer, ionization gauge, etc.)· Forcesensor (piezoelectric sensor, strain gauge, force gauge, torque sensor, etc.)· opticalsensors (photo detector, photo diode, optical position sensor, etc.)· positionsensors (gravimeter, odometer, tilt sensor, tachometer, flex sensor, etc.)· navigationsensors (air speed indicator, altimeter, variometer, turn coordinator, etc.
)· Ionizing radiation sensor (cloud chamber,Geiger counter, neutron detection, etc.)· Flowsensor (air flow meter, gas meter, mass flow sensor, anemometer, etc.)· Environmentalsensors (frequency domain sensor, rain sensor, soil moisture sensor, etc.)· Electricsensor (current sensor, voltage sensor, magnetometer, electron multiplier, etc.
)· Chemicalsensor (pH sensor, hydrogen sensor, optode, ozone monitor, etc.)· Soundsensor (geophone, seismometer, hydrophone,microphone, etc.) Valves andactuators Valvesand actuators are the basic electro mechanical components which controls thespeed of the process. These basic components of automation are controlled bysoftware, in which the process requirements are fed.
Example: ball valve, butterfly valve, clapper valve, checkvalve, choke valve, pinch valve, piston valve, plug valve, poppet valve, safetyvalve, etc. PLC system Theprogramable logic circuit is the base of automation. The information collectedby the sensors are read by the PLC and analyzed. The sequence of events canalso be programmed in the PLC, according to which the process is carried out.The actuators and valves are also controlled by the signals from the PLCcircuit. The most hazardous and complicated works should be replaced byautomated devices controlled by PLC’s. PLC’s are used ino Assemblylineso Highlyreliable activitieso Highprecision activitieso Roboticdeviceso Processcontrols SCADA Supervisorycontrol and data acquisition can be used to control the activities or progressof the activities.
This could also be used to control the efficiency of thesystems. Once installed to the main system, it controls the PLC’s and retrievesdata from them and commands the PLC’s for the further actions. SCADA is thebackbone for the automation and control systems in all the smart factories. Themain applications of SCADA s in the fields of oil, energy, road and transport,power and grid, water and resources, manufacturing, recycling, air and sea,etc.
OPC server The object linking and embedding for processcontrol is the bridge between the physical component and the control system. The OPC server translates the data collectedfrom the hardware to through PLC into the OPC control. The OPC historic dataaccess is used to access the data from the past and analyze it to know if itcould be used as a bench mark for the new process. IoT gateway TheInternet of Things is the gateway between the cloud of data and the accessoriesin the real world. The data transfer is bidirectional, and it can sendthousands of information per second.
The gateway also has the capacity toprocess the data before it is send to the cloud or to the component. Due tobidirectional data transfer, the data security is high. AR/VR TheAugmented reality and the virtual reality could be used to troubleshoot faultsand failures in minimum time. The other features are· Increaseefficiency by increasing the workers safety.· Thevirtual reality collects information during the virtual reality experience andcomputes it with the historic data saved in the database. · Developmentcycle reduces with the augmented reality.· Planning time can be reduced using augmentedreality and high-quality planning can be achieved. · Productionsystem need not be modeled full.
Steps to build a smart factoryStep 1Create a concept of the smartfactory in a manageable environment. Planning should be done from the base, startingfrom the product to be produced, followed by the machine and machine toolsrequired to produce the product, and then the dimension of the factory requiredto hold all these machineries along with the storage and buffer facilities. Step 2Scale the basic concept into aprototype by increasing the performance of the tools and machineries.This prototype should hold all the basic information required to construct thefactory. This prototype can be made physical with trial methods or in virtualby simulation software. Step 3 Once the prototype succeeds, the additionalassets should be added.
This include addition of all supporting process. Theconnections between the sequential operations should be validated. Step 4Implement the production line byimproving the performance of the dependent processes. The implementation shouldbe done such that the setup time, waiting time, and the process time isreduced. Step 5Improve the factory by thebetter utilization of the resources and assets. The major thing that should beconsidered is lowering the inventory and stock in the mean time utilizing themachine to its optimum level. Step 6Networking should be done bylinking all the process to the central hub. The supply chain should also beconnected to the central system.
The connections may be through wires orthrough Internet. In this case every machine will have a transmitter and a receiverthat would help to code and decode the commands and messages. Conclusion Due to the variability in customer requirements and highdegree of automation, it is obvious for all the modern industries to movetowards smart factory.
Even though most of the companies make business bynaming themselves smart factory, they aren’t smart. A real smart factory shouldhave the following properties. I. Cyberphysical systems and the Internet of Things should be implemented.
II. Itshould be capable enough to produce variability in product. III. Thereshould be a clear track for the inventory, supply chain and delivery of the product. IV.
Thedata should be stored in cloud and should be retrieved for future reference.All these four requirements shouldbe fulfilled without the threat of cyber attack or privacy of data. ReferenceØ FactoryPhysics for Managers by Edward S.Pound/ Jeffrey H.Bell/ Mark L.Speraman, PhD Ø https://www.boschrexroth.com/en/gb/trends-and-topics/industry-4-0/features-of-smart-manufacturing/features-of-smart-manufacturing Ø https://www.einfochips.com/blog/adopt-industry-4-0-to-enable-smart-factory-and-connected-manufacturing/ Ø https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/insights/us/articles/4051_The-smart-factory/DUP_The-smart-factory.pdf