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25cm; line-height: 120%; }a:link { }Introduction: GSMstands for Global System for MobileCommunication. It is a digital cellular technology used fortransmitting mobile voice and data services.The concept of GSM emerged from a cell-based mobile radio system at Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s.

GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard. GSM is the most widely accepted standard in telecommunications and it is implemented globally. GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots. GSM operates on the mobile communication bands 900 MHz and 1800 MHz in most parts of the world. In the US, GSM operates in the bands 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. GSM owns a market share of more than 70 percent of the world’s digital cellular subscribers. GSM makes use of narrowband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technique for transmitting signals.

GSM was developed using digital technology. It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of data rates. Presently GSM supports more than one billion mobile subscribers in more than 210 countries throughout the world.

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GSM provides basic to advanced voice and data services including roaming service. Roaming is the ability to use your GSM phone number in another GSM network. Componentsof GSM:AGSM network comprises of many functional units. These functions andinterfaces are explained in this chapter. The GSM network can bebroadly divided into:The Mobile Station (MS) The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) The Operation Support Subsystem (OSS)Given below isa simple pictorial view of the GSM architecture.

Theadditional components of the GSM architecture comprise of databasesand messaging systems functions:Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) Authentication Center (AuC) SMS Serving Center (SMS SC) Gateway MSC (GMSC) Chargeback Center (CBC) Transcoder and Adaptation Unit (TRAU) In a GSMnetwork, the following areas are defined:Cell : Cell is the basic service area; one BTS covers one cell. Each cell is given a Cell Global Identity (CGI), a number that uniquely identifies the cell. Location Area : A group of cells form a Location Area (LA). This is the area that is paged when a subscriber gets an incoming call. Each LA is assigned a Location Area Identity (LAI). Each LA is served by one or more BSCs.

MSC/VLR Service Area : The area covered by one MSC is called the MSC/VLR service area. PLMN : The area covered by one network operator is called the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). A PLMN can contain one or more MSCs.GSMServices:GSMoffers much more than just voice telephony. Contact your local GSMnetwork operator to the specific services that you can avail.

GSM offersthree basic types of services:Telephony services or teleservices Data services or bearer services Supplementary services TeleservicesThe abilitiesof a Bearer Service are used by a Teleservice to transport data.These services are further transited in the following ways:VoiceCalls:The most basicTeleservice supported by GSM is telephony. This includes full-ratespeech at 13 kbps and emergency calls, where the nearestemergency-service provider is notified by dialing three digits.Videotextand Facsmile:Another groupof teleservices includes Videotext access, Teletex transmission,Facsmile alternate speech and Facsmile Group 3, Automatic FacsmileGroup, 3 etc.ShortText Messages:ShortMessaging Service (SMS) service is a text messaging service thatallows sending and receiving text messages on your GSM mobile phone.In addition to simple text messages, other text data including news,sports, financial, language, and location-based data can also betransmitted.

BearerServices:Data servicesor Bearer Services are used through a GSM phone. to receive and senddata is the essential building block leading to widespread mobileInternet access and mobile data transfer. GSM currently has a datatransfer rate of 9.6k.SupplementaryServices:Supplementaryservices are additional services that are provided in addition toteleservices and bearer services. These services include calleridentification, call forwarding, call waiting, multi-partyconversations, and barring of outgoing (international) calls, amongothers.

A brief description of supplementary services is given here:Conferencing : It allows a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation, i.e., a simultaneous conversation between three or more subscribers to setup a conference call. Call Waiting : This service notifies a mobile subscriber of an incoming call during a conversation.

The subscriber can answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call. Call Hold : This service allows a subscriber to put an incoming call on hold and resume after a while. Call Forwarding : Call Forwarding is used to divert calls from the original recipient to another number.

It is normally set up by the subscriber himself. Call Barring : Call Barring is useful to restrict certain types of outgoing calls such as ISD or stop incoming calls from undesired numbers. NumberIdentification : There arefollowing supplementary services related to number identification:Calling Line Identification Presentation : This service displays the telephone number of the calling party on your screen. Calling Line Identification Restriction : A person not wishing their number to be presented to others subscribes to this service. Connected Line Identification Presentation : This service is provided to give the calling party the telephone number of the person to whom they are connected. Connected Line Identification Restriction : There are times when the person called does not wish to have their number presented and so they would subscribe to this person. Conclusion:Thecommunication development and the increase of living standard ofpeople are directly related to the more use of cellular mobile.

Cellular mobile radio-the high end sophisticated technology thatenables every one to communicate anywhere with anybody. The mobiletelephony industry rapidly growing and that has become backbone forbusiness success and efficiency and a part of modern lifestyles allover the world. The features and benefitsexpected in the GSM systems are superior speech quality, lowterminal, operational and service costs, a high level security,providing international roaming support of low power hand portableterminals and variety of new services and network facilities. In nearforth coming days, the third generation mobile telephony becomesavailable whole over the world, which will give the facility ofvideoconference in mobile telephone.