Guang Ming College          656 P. Ocampo.

St. Malate, ManilaManila, Philippines Training for Leadership:Exploring the Outcomes of Extracurricular Activities to the Students of GuangMing College  ShenaMarie PacanoBachelor of Arts in Buddhist Studies III  LouieCagasanAdviser  November 12, 2017     Departmentof Buddhist StudiesChapter 1INTRODUCTION Background of the StudyDue to the high risks responsibility, demands were placedon educational leaders,and the several tests to meet high potentials for all scholars, thequalification for high quality school leaders is more essential today than everbefore. Training and drilling staff, building relationships, providing suitableresources, analyzing and using data to drive decision making, engaging inphilosophical practices, are some of the important leadership activities andpractices necessary to lead successfully. Van Velsor & Wright, 2012recognized necessary competencies for future leaders: flexibility, goodcommunication, learning skill, and culturally diverse awareness. Many of theseskills can be transferable from leaders’ previous experience inextracurricular. Extracurricularrepresents activities outside the regular curriculum or program of coursesincluding all sporting/athletic activities available or physically involvedprograms (Hawkins, 2010).

Leadership, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary(1993) defines a skill as “the ability to use one’s knowledge effectivelyand readily in execution or performance”. Normally, educationsystem designs a program called extracurricularactivities such as student government and club organizations to createleadership training and to let the students explore and train their leadershipskills (Van Velsor &Wright, 2012; Whitehead 2009). Remiers (2009)acknowledged educational leaders of the 21st century as responsiblestudents for a multifaceted and consistent society. Today, many leaders areconstantly reaching the cut off for age retirement and the need to leave theprofession. It would be valuable for colleges and universities to know whattype of training or program they will be designing for the preparation a futureleader.

 Last 2014, a Buddhist institution named FoGuang Shan established Guang Ming College as the first Humanistic BuddhistCollege in the Philippines. Fo Guang Shan is an international Chinese Buddhistmonastic order and new religious movement based in Taiwan. Its headquarters isin Dashu District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

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 Guang Ming College is the 5th Fo Guang Shan tertiaryeducation institution that offers scholarship to the Filipinos. The collegeoffers three programs namely; Bachelor of Arts in Buddhist Studies, Bachelor ofArts in Theater, and Bachelor of Performing Arts in Dance. With an aid ofproducing an ethical, compassionate, globally competitive, life-long learnersand agent of societal transformation graduates, the college design a curriculumthat was based on Life Education. Life Education includes activities such ascooking, arts & crafts and extracurricular activities to give students anopportunity to further educate themselves. Extracurricular activities insideand outside the college are considered to be a training for producing studentsto be future leader.

These background preparations, pursue the researcher toinvestigate and analyze if involvement in extracurricular activities help indeveloping leadership profiles and most of all leadership training. As theresearcher examined the connection of extracurricular activities and leadershiptraining it is important to understand how the college foster and trainleaders. Statement of the Problem                 Theproblem to be investigated, are the outcomes of extracurricular activities toleadership training.

Involvement in extracurricular activities has made a bigimpact to student leadership. With increasing demands to the needs ofeducational leader, it is important to understand and analyze the outcomes ofextracurricular activities to leadership training. There is little any evidenceto be proven that leadership training will be found in extracurricularactivities. Purpose of the Study Thepurpose of this study is to examine on how extracurricular activities impact toleadership training of the students in Guang Ming College. Research QuestionsThestudy seeks to determine if extracurricular activities help students intraining for leadership. To examine this relationship, this study was guided bythe following sets of research questions.

1.    Isthere are significant relationship between extracurricular activities andleadership training?2.    Howdoes the context of extracurricular activities affect students training forleadership?3.    Whatare the traits of a leader that can be found in joining extracurricularactivities?4.    Whatare the intended and unintended outcomes of leadership training when it comesto extracurricular activities? Significance of the Study             The study focused on explaining theoutcomes of extracurricular when it comes to training for leadership especiallyto the students of Guang Ming College. Moreover, the results of this study willbe beneficial to the following:Respondents: Therespondents will have an awareness on the importance of engaging inextra-curricular activities. Teachers: The result of thestudy will help the teachers/administration to provide a well-organizedleadership training and to think an idea that will give proper guidelines ofschool leadership to the students, that could increase students’ competency inleadership.

  Administration/Institution: Theresult of the study may provide on assessment of the mentoring program whetherit is beneficial and effective. This will also encourage the administration tothink for more activities that will make the students leaders enjoy the programand learn happily. Future Researchers: Thefindings of the study will serve as a reference material and a guide for futureresearchers who are researching on the same study or any related study aboutstudent’s leadership.             Findings from this study provideevidence of the value of extra-curricular when it comes to student’s leadershipand the impact of extracurricular they may experience. The study alsocontributes to the body of research on student leadership, and the relationshipbetween training for leadership and extracurricular activities, above all itrelates to group task and leadership projects.SummaryChapterone introduced the study, provided the statement of the problem and researchquestions to be answered. The limitations and research design were alsoidentified.

Chapter two will provide the literature review.Chapter IIIMETHODS AND PROCEDURESResearch Methodology Thepurpose of this study is to examine on how extracurricular activities impact toleadership training of the students in Guang Ming College. This chapterdescribes the study design, location, population, procedures for gatheringdata, and analysis method.   To examinethe profundity of the experiences of the students involved in this study, theresearcher will use a mixed method both quantitative and qualitative approachthrough survey questionnaire and interviews to address the research questions.F.

Williams (1992), there are two major types or method of research designnamely qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method should beapplied when the variable in the study needs to be measured and whensuppositions need to be tested. In understanding complex, embedded phenomena,qualitative approach and quantitative approach are also necessary.(Alvesson,1996; Bryman, Stephens, & Campo,1996; Conger, 1998). Quantitativemethod depends on number of factors by collecting numerical data that areanalyzed using mathematical method particularly through statistics (Creswell,1994). Respondentsof the StudyResearchand studies are bound by the limitation experience by the researcher.Information acquired, time restraints to conduct study, limitation with thesample size or respondents are all examples of variable that impact researchfindings and result. The following limitations were made in conducting thisresearch.

Therespondents or participants of this study were limited to the students at GuangMing College involved in specific programs; Buddhist Studies, Performing Artsin Dance, and Performing Arts in Theater at the time of the research. It wasnecessary to limit the population or respondents of this study because of themethodology or research design used by the researcher. The process ofinterviews and distribution of survey questionnaire have direct access to asmall population of students in the college.

In such, respondents will beselected through random sampling. A total of 30 students will be therespondents of this study ((2ndyear college, 3rd year college, and 4th year college) hence,the research will be conducted inside the college at 656 P. Ocampo StreetMalate, Manila, Philippines. Research InstrumentsAset of questionnaires was used to collect the information needed for thisstudy. Questionnaire relating to the respondent’s demographic information(gender, educational background, and demographic information of extracurricularactivities).

The revised self-leadership questionnaire of Jeffery D. Houghton and Christopher P. Neck willalso be used.  The reviseself-questionnaire consists of 35 items distinct sub-scales representing threeprimary self-leadership dimensions. The table below shows the distribution ofdimensions and factor number.   Dimensions Factor Number Behavior focused-strategies 2,11,20,28,34,4,13, 22, 6, 15, 24, 30, 7, 16, 25, 31, 9, 18 Natural reward strategies 8, 17, 26, 32, 35 Constructive thought pattern strategies 1, 10, 19, 27, 33, 3, 12, 21, 5, 14, 23, 29  Below are the questionnairesitems:Participant Demographic Information andProfile of Extracurricular Activities Participant Demographic Information:    _____Male                _____ Female Educational Background______Bachelor’s Degree in ____________________________________ How often are you involved on the followingextracurricular activities in Guang Ming College with Leadership Role?Instruction: Pleasedo check (/) the choices that correspond to your answer.

Listed Extracurricular Activities No opportunity Rarely Sometimes Always 1.    Clubs and Organizations         2.    Events Management         3.    Performance Production         4.    Seminars or Workshops         5.

    Scouting         6.    Journalism         7.    Research Conference         8.

    Sports           How often are you involved on the followingextracurricular activities in Guang Ming College with Member Role?Instruction: Pleasedo check (/) the choices that correspond to your answer. Listed Extracurricular Activities No opportunity Rarely Sometimes Always 1.    Clubs and Organizations         2.    Events Management         3.    Performance Production         4.    Seminars or Workshops         5.    Scouting         6.

    Journalism         7.    Research Conference         8.    Sports         Therevised self-leadership questionnaireAuthors: JefferyD. Houghton and ChristopherP. NeckInstruction: Pleasedo check (/) the choices that correspond to your answer.   Not all accurate Somewhat accurate A little accurate Mostly accurate Completely accurate     1. I use my imagination to picture myself performing well on important tasks.           2.

I establish specific goals for my own performance.           3. Sometimes I find I’m talking to myself (out loud or in my head) to help me deal with difficult problems I face.           4. When I do an assignment especially well, I like to treat myself to something or activity I especially enjoy.           5.

I think about my own beliefs and assumptions whenever I encounter a difficult situation.           6. I tend to get down on myself in my mind when I have performed poorly.           7. I make appoint to keep track of how well I’m doing at work (school).           8. I focus my thinking on the pleasant rather than the unpleasant aspects of my job (school) activities.

          9. I use written notes to remind myself of what I need to accomplish.           10. I visualize myself successfully performing a task before I do it.           11. I consciously have goals in mind for my work efforts           12. Sometimes I talk to myself (out loud or in my head) to work through difficult situations.

          13.When I do something well ,I reward myself with a special event such as a good dinner, movie shopping trip, etc.           14. I try to mentally evaluate the accuracy of my own beliefs about situations I am having problems with.

          15. I tend to be tough on myself in my thinking when I have not done well on a task.           16.

I usually am aware of how well I’m doing as I perform an activity.           17. I try to surround myself with objects and people that bring out my desirable behaviors.           18.I use concrete reminders(e.g.

, notes and lists)to help me focus on things I need to accomplish           19. Sometimes I picture in my mind a successful performance before I actually do a task.           20.

I work toward specific goals I have set for myself.           21. When I’ mind difficult situations I will sometimes talk to myself (out loud or in my head) to help me get through it.           22. When I have successfully completed a task, I often reward myself with something I like.

          23.I openly articulate and evaluate my own assumptions when I have a disagreement with someone else           24. I feel guilty when I perform a task poorly           25. I pay attention to how well I’m doing in my work.           26.

When I have a choice   , I try to do my work in ways that I enjoy rather than just trying to get it over with.           27.I purposefully visualize myself overcoming the challenges I face           28. I think about the goals that I intend to achieve in the future           29.I think about and evaluate the beliefs and assumptions I hold           30. I sometimes openly express displeasure with myself when I have not done well.           31.

I keep track of my progress on projects I’m working on.           32.  I seek out activities in my work that I enjoy doing.           33. I often mentally rehearse the way I plan to deal with a challenge before I face the challenge.           34. I write specific goals form own performance.

          35. I find my own favorite ways to get things done             Data Analysis Thedata were analyzed by using percentage and qualitative statements of therespondents. The qualitative statements were analyzed by denoting the frequencyof commonality in statements and depicting the trend of the statements in acollective sense. Data Analysis Data analysis started with the reading of boththe interview transcripts and field notes several times to discover themes, andthe focus.

     AppendixINFORMED CONSENT InformedConsent for Participation in Research Activity:”Training or Leadership: Exploring the Outcomes of Extracurricular Activitiesto the Students of Guang Ming College”Researcher:Shena Marie PacanoE-mailAddress: [email protected] 1. You are invited toparticipate in a research study conducted by Shena Marie Pacano under theguidance of Professor Louie Cagasan Jr. The purpose of the study is to identifyif joining in extracurricular activities contributed to the leadership trainingof the students in Guang Ming College.a. Yourparticipation will involve through completing the questionnaire provided by theresearcher.b.

The amount of time involved in your participation will be approximately 25 minutes.Approximately 30 students will be invited to participate in this research.        2. There are noanticipated risks associated with this research.        3. Your participation in this study will contribute to the knowledgeabout extracurricular activities impact on leadership in your school.         4. Your participation is voluntary, and you may choose not toparticipate in this research study or to withdraw your consent atany time.

  You may choose not to answer any questions that you do not want to answer.You will NOT be penalized in any way should you choose not to participate or to withdraw.        5. I will do everything I can to protect your privacy.  As part of this effort, your identity will not be revealed in anypublication or presentation that may result from this study.

The on-line survey does not track theparticipants’ e-mail addresses, so there is no way I will even know who choseto participate. If you have anyquestions or concerns regarding this study, would like a copy of the research findings, or if any problemsarise, you may call the researcher, Shena Marie Pacano, at 09059004356.  In signing the Letter of Consent, you areagreeing to participate in this research.                                                                                                               ThankYou,                                                                                                             ShenaMarie Pacano  Participant Signature:           BibliographyØ  Alvesson,M. (1996) Leadership studies: From procedure and abstraction to reflexivity andsituation.

Leadership Quarterly 7, 455-485.Ø  Bryman, A.(1988).  Quantity and quality in socialresearch.  London:  Unwin Hyman.Ø  Bryman, A.

(1992).  Quantitative and qualitativeresearch: further reflections on their integration. InJ. Brannen (Ed.).  Mixing methods:Qualitative and quantitative research.  Aldershot, UK:  Avebury-Ashgate.

Ø  Bryman, A., Stephens, M. , & Campo, C. (1996) `The Importance of Context: Qualitative Research and theStudy of Leadership’ , Leadership Quarterly 7: 353-70. Ø  Hawkins, D.

I., & Mothersbaugh, D. L. (2010). Consumer behavior: Building marketingstrategy.

Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Ø  Whitehead, B. M. (2009). Curriculumleadership: Strategies for development and implementation. Los Angeles:Sage.

 DictionaryØ  Merriam-Webster’scollegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.