Guang resources, analyzing and using data to drive


Guang Ming College

656 P. Ocampo. St. Malate, Manila

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Manila, Philippines


Training for Leadership:
Exploring the Outcomes of Extracurricular Activities to the Students of Guang
Ming College



Marie Pacano

Bachelor of Arts in Buddhist Studies III







November 12, 2017






of Buddhist Studies

Chapter 1



Background of the Study

Due to the high risks responsibility, demands were placed
on educational

and the several tests to meet high potentials for all scholars, the
qualification for high quality school leaders is more essential today than ever
before. Training and drilling staff, building relationships, providing suitable
resources, analyzing and using data to drive decision making, engaging in
philosophical practices, are some of the important leadership activities and
practices necessary to lead successfully. Van Velsor & Wright, 2012
recognized necessary competencies for future leaders: flexibility, good
communication, learning skill, and culturally diverse awareness. Many of these
skills can be transferable from leaders’ previous experience in
extracurricular. Extracurricular
represents activities outside the regular curriculum or program of courses
including all sporting/athletic activities available or physically involved
programs (Hawkins, 2010).

Leadership, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary
(1993) defines a

skill as “the ability to use one’s knowledge effectively
and readily in execution or

performance”. Normally, education
system designs a program called extracurricular
activities such as student government and club organizations to create
leadership training and to let the students explore and train their leadership
skills (Van Velsor &Wright, 2012; Whitehead 2009). Remiers (2009)
acknowledged educational leaders of the 21st century as responsible
students for a multifaceted and consistent society. Today, many leaders are
constantly reaching the cut off for age retirement and the need to leave the
profession. It would be valuable for colleges and universities to know what
type of training or program they will be designing for the preparation a future

 Last 2014, a Buddhist institution named Fo
Guang Shan established Guang Ming College as the first Humanistic Buddhist
College in the Philippines. Fo Guang Shan is an international Chinese Buddhist
monastic order and new religious movement based in Taiwan. Its headquarters is
in Dashu District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 
Guang Ming College is the 5th Fo Guang Shan tertiary
education institution that offers scholarship to the Filipinos. The college
offers three programs namely; Bachelor of Arts in Buddhist Studies, Bachelor of
Arts in Theater, and Bachelor of Performing Arts in Dance. With an aid of
producing an ethical, compassionate, globally competitive, life-long learners
and agent of societal transformation graduates, the college design a curriculum
that was based on Life Education. Life Education includes activities such as
cooking, arts & crafts and extracurricular activities to give students an
opportunity to further educate themselves. Extracurricular activities inside
and outside the college are considered to be a training for producing students
to be future leader. These background preparations, pursue the researcher to
investigate and analyze if involvement in extracurricular activities help in
developing leadership profiles and most of all leadership training. As the
researcher examined the connection of extracurricular activities and leadership
training it is important to understand how the college foster and train

Statement of the Problem


problem to be investigated, are the outcomes of extracurricular activities to
leadership training. Involvement in extracurricular activities has made a big
impact to student leadership. With increasing demands to the needs of
educational leader, it is important to understand and analyze the outcomes of
extracurricular activities to leadership training. There is little any evidence
to be proven that leadership training will be found in extracurricular

Purpose of the Study


purpose of this study is to examine on how extracurricular activities impact to
leadership training of the students in Guang Ming College.

Research Questions

study seeks to determine if extracurricular activities help students in
training for leadership. To examine this relationship, this study was guided by
the following sets of research questions.

1.    Is
there are significant relationship between extracurricular activities and
leadership training?

2.    How
does the context of extracurricular activities affect students training for

3.    What
are the traits of a leader that can be found in joining extracurricular

4.    What
are the intended and unintended outcomes of leadership training when it comes
to extracurricular activities?


Significance of the Study


            The study focused on explaining the
outcomes of extracurricular when it comes to training for leadership especially
to the students of Guang Ming College. Moreover, the results of this study will
be beneficial to the following:

Respondents: The
respondents will have an awareness on the importance of engaging in
extra-curricular activities.

Teachers: The result of the
study will help the teachers/administration to provide a well-organized
leadership training and to think an idea that will give proper guidelines of
school leadership to the students, that could increase students’ competency in

Administration/Institution: The
result of the study may provide on assessment of the mentoring program whether
it is beneficial and effective. This will also encourage the administration to
think for more activities that will make the students leaders enjoy the program
and learn happily.

Future Researchers: The
findings of the study will serve as a reference material and a guide for future
researchers who are researching on the same study or any related study about
student’s leadership.

            Findings from this study provide
evidence of the value of extra-curricular when it comes to student’s leadership
and the impact of extracurricular they may experience. The study also
contributes to the body of research on student leadership, and the relationship
between training for leadership and extracurricular activities, above all it
relates to group task and leadership projects.


one introduced the study, provided the statement of the problem and research
questions to be answered. The limitations and research design were also
identified. Chapter two will provide the literature review.

Chapter III


Research Methodology

purpose of this study is to examine on how extracurricular activities impact to
leadership training of the students in Guang Ming College. This chapter
describes the study design, location, population, procedures for gathering
data, and analysis method.   To examine
the profundity of the experiences of the students involved in this study, the
researcher will use a mixed method both quantitative and qualitative approach
through survey questionnaire and interviews to address the research questions.
F. Williams (1992), there are two major types or method of research design
namely qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method should be
applied when the variable in the study needs to be measured and when
suppositions need to be tested. In understanding complex, embedded phenomena,
qualitative approach and quantitative approach are also necessary.
(Alvesson,1996; Bryman, Stephens, & Campo,1996; Conger, 1998). Quantitative
method depends on number of factors by collecting numerical data that are
analyzed using mathematical method particularly through statistics (Creswell,


of the Study

and studies are bound by the limitation experience by the researcher.
Information acquired, time restraints to conduct study, limitation with the
sample size or respondents are all examples of variable that impact research
findings and result. The following limitations were made in conducting this

respondents or participants of this study were limited to the students at Guang
Ming College involved in specific programs; Buddhist Studies, Performing Arts
in Dance, and Performing Arts in Theater at the time of the research. It was
necessary to limit the population or respondents of this study because of the
methodology or research design used by the researcher. The process of
interviews and distribution of survey questionnaire have direct access to a
small population of students in the college. In such, respondents will be
selected through random sampling. A total of 30 students will be the
respondents of this study ((2nd
year college, 3rd year college, and 4th year college) hence,
the research will be conducted inside the college at 656 P. Ocampo Street
Malate, Manila, Philippines.

Research Instruments

set of questionnaires was used to collect the information needed for this
study. Questionnaire relating to the respondent’s demographic information
(gender, educational background, and demographic information of extracurricular
activities). The revised self-leadership questionnaire of Jeffery D. Houghton and Christopher P. Neck will
also be used.  The revise
self-questionnaire consists of 35 items distinct sub-scales representing three
primary self-leadership dimensions. The table below shows the distribution of
dimensions and factor number.






2,11,20,28,34,4,13, 22, 6,
15, 24, 30, 7, 16, 25, 31, 9, 18

Natural reward strategies

8, 17, 26, 32, 35

Constructive thought
pattern strategies

1, 10, 19, 27, 33, 3, 12,
21, 5, 14, 23, 29


Below are the questionnaires

Participant Demographic Information and
Profile of Extracurricular Activities


Participant Demographic Information:

Male                _____ Female


Educational Background

Bachelor’s Degree in ____________________________________


How often are you involved on the following
extracurricular activities in Guang Ming College with Leadership Role?

Instruction: Please
do check (/) the choices that correspond to your answer.

Extracurricular Activities





Clubs and Organizations





Events Management





Performance Production





Seminars or Workshops















Research Conference












How often are you involved on the following
extracurricular activities in Guang Ming College with Member Role?

Instruction: Please
do check (/) the choices that correspond to your answer.

Extracurricular Activities

No opportunity




Clubs and Organizations





Events Management





Performance Production





Seminars or Workshops















Research Conference










revised self-leadership questionnaire

Authors: Jeffery
D. Houghton and Christopher
P. Neck

Instruction: Please
do check (/) the choices that correspond to your answer.


Not all


A little



I use my imagination to picture myself performing well on important tasks.






I establish specific goals for my own performance.






Sometimes I find I’m talking to myself (out loud or in my head) to help me
deal with difficult problems I face.






When I do an assignment especially well, I like to treat myself to something
or activity I especially enjoy.






I think about my own beliefs and assumptions whenever I encounter a difficult






I tend to get down on myself in my mind when I have performed poorly.






I make appoint to keep track of how well I’m doing at work (school).






I focus my thinking on the pleasant rather than the unpleasant aspects of my
job (school) activities.






I use written notes to remind myself of what I need to accomplish.






I visualize myself successfully performing a task before I do it.






I consciously have goals in mind for my work efforts






Sometimes I talk to myself (out loud or in my head) to work through difficult






I do something well ,I reward myself with a special event such as a good
dinner, movie shopping trip, etc.






I try to mentally evaluate the accuracy of my own beliefs about situations I
am having problems with.






I tend to be tough on myself in my thinking when I have not done well on a






I usually am aware of how well I’m doing as I perform an activity.






I try to surround myself with objects and people that bring out my desirable






use concrete reminders(e.g., notes and lists)to help me focus on things I
need to accomplish






Sometimes I picture in my mind a successful performance before I actually do
a task.






I work toward specific goals I have set for myself.






When I’ mind difficult situations I will sometimes talk to myself (out loud
or in my head) to help me get through it.






When I have successfully completed a task, I often reward myself with
something I like.






openly articulate and evaluate my own assumptions when I have a disagreement
with someone else






I feel guilty when I perform a task poorly






I pay attention to how well I’m doing in my work.






When I have a choice   , I try to do my
work in ways that I enjoy rather than just trying to get it over with.






purposefully visualize myself overcoming the challenges I face






I think about the goals that I intend to achieve in the future






think about and evaluate the beliefs and assumptions I hold






I sometimes openly express displeasure with myself when I have not done well.






I keep track of my progress on projects I’m working on.






32.  I seek out activities in my work that I
enjoy doing.






I often mentally rehearse the way I plan to deal with a challenge before I face
the challenge.






I write specific goals form own performance.






I find my own favorite ways to get things done








Data Analysis

data were analyzed by using percentage and qualitative statements of the
respondents. The qualitative statements were analyzed by denoting the frequency
of commonality in statements and depicting the trend of the statements in a
collective sense. Data Analysis Data analysis started with the reading of both
the interview transcripts and field notes several times to discover themes, and
the focus.









Consent for Participation in Research Activity:
“Training or Leadership: Exploring the Outcomes of Extracurricular Activities
to the Students of Guang Ming College”

Shena Marie Pacano

Address: [email protected]


1. You are invited to
participate in a research study conducted by Shena Marie Pacano under the
guidance of Professor Louie Cagasan Jr. The purpose of the study is to identify
if joining in extracurricular activities contributed to the leadership training
of the students in Guang Ming College.

a. Your
participation will involve through completing the questionnaire provided by the

The amount of time involved in your participation will be approximately 25 minutes.
Approximately 30 students will be invited to participate in this research.

2. There are no
anticipated risks associated with this research.

3. Your participation in this study will contribute to the knowledge
about extracurricular activities impact on leadership in your school.

4. Your participation is voluntary, and you may choose not to
participate in this

research study or to withdraw your consent at
any time.  You may choose not to answer

any questions that you do not want to answer.
You will NOT be penalized in any way

should you choose not to participate or to withdraw.

5. I will do everything I can to protect your privacy.  As part of this effort, your

identity will not be revealed in any
publication or presentation that may result from this

study. The on-line survey does not track the
participants’ e-mail addresses, so there is no way I will even know who chose
to participate.


If you have any
questions or concerns regarding this study, would like a copy of

the research findings, or if any problems
arise, you may call the researcher, Shena Marie Pacano, at 09059004356.  

In signing the Letter of Consent, you are
agreeing to participate in

this research.





Marie Pacano



Participant Signature:













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Ø  Bryman, A., Stephens, M. , & Campo, C. (1996) `The Importance of Context: Qualitative Research and the
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Ø  Hawkins, D. I., & Mothersbaugh, D. L. (2010). Consumer behavior: Building marketing
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Ø  Whitehead, B. M. (2009). Curriculum
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