1. What was the goal of Ottoman (and Egyptian) reforms of 18/19th century, who drove them and with what result? In Ottoman Empire the goal was to at first modernize military in order to sustain the Empire and it’s old order.
Most radical reforms during the late 18th and early 19th century were introduced by Sultan Selim Ill, he intensified the military reforms which were introduced by his predecessors in the 18th century.The model for these reforms were European armies, Selim Ill wanted to reorganize the existing armed orces along the lines of the European ones, in order to do this he was employing new advisories under who’s supervision new eurpoean war tactics were introduced. He was also buying new weapons for the army and upgrading existing arsenal.
He introduced new way of recruiting soldiers and he opened Ottoman embassies in few foreign cities. Even though Selim iii planned to limit western ideas only to Military thanks to opening the embassies western influence was spread into other parts as well.Janissaries, derebeys and ulama were not happy about the reforms. Jenissaries felt threatened and thans to that Selim wsa unable to incompose new armed forces with the old ones, derebeys were alarmed by the Sultan sponsored new armed forces and ulama objected some European models on which the reforms were based. This resulted in overthrow of sultan Selim Ill and his murder, new order armies were dispersed and embassies closed.
Mahmud II, brings in European stle colleges, newspaper, killing Janissaries. Period of Tanzimat comes reforms come fromEuropeanized Ottomans such as Ali Pasha goal to modernize empire, sustain it and bring equality between non muslim and muslim subjects. The goal of reforms in Egypt was also to modernized however Muhammad Ali introduced these reforms in order to secure Egypt’s independence from the Ottoman empire and to estabilish hereditary dynasty for his family in Egypt.
In order to reach this Muhammad Ali’s reforms main purpose was to strengthen the army. He launched Egypt into a period of internal development and expansion.