GlaxoSmithKlineis a British, pharmaceutical, vaccine, biologics and consumer healthcarecompany founded in 2000 when Glaxo Wellcome plc and SmithKline Beecham plcmerged (Silvestrini E., 2017).

The merger was a result of Glaxo Wellcome inneeding to create a new bestselling drug after the success of ulcer treatmentdrug Zantac (BBC News., 2000). SmithKline Beecham wanted to diversify theirproduct portfolio as their profits came from non-medical products such astoothpaste and nutritional drinks (BBC News., 2000). GSK’s history goes as farback as 1859 when Beecham opened the world’s first factory built solely formaking medicines at St Helens in England.

Since that time the company haspassed through many phases, but the turning point came during the merger ofGlaxo Welcome and SmithKline Beecham in 2000, it had also seen a merger ofGlaxo and Welcome in 1995 (GlaxoSmithKline., 1998).  GSK’s website reads that the companydeveloped through various acquisitions such as acquiring US based company BlockDrug Co in 2001 to allow a wider range of consumer products which includedSensodyne toothpaste. The UK pharmaceutical leader also acquired StiefelLaboratories in 2009 who were the world’s largest independent dermatology drugcompany, enabling GlaxoSmithKline to become the leader in skincare, creating growth(GlaxoSmithKline.

, 2017).       *This statisticabove depicts the revenue of pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline from 2006to 2016. In 2009, the company implemented a total of 28.39 billion US dollarsof revenue   2.2.2 AstraZenecaAstraZenecais a British, pharmaceutical, cardiovascular, gastroenterology and an oncologycompany founded in 1999 when Astra AB and Zeneca Group plc merged (Blake H.

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,2012). The merger was a result of Astra AB and Zeneca Group having a sharedvision of the pharmaceutical industry. Through this merger, AstraZeneca wasformed and the company are now considered as one of the top pharmaceuticalcompanies in the world thanks to establishing themselves by selling the world’sbestselling heartburn drug Prilosec (Ax J., 2013).AstraZenecahave grown through various acquisitions such as with Cambridge AntibodyTechnology in 2004 (Laforte M.

, 2006). The British pharmaceutical giants hadalso acquired MedImmune for $15.6 billion in 2007 (Pollack A.

, 2007) and ArdeaBiosciences in 2012 (AstraZeneca., 2012). These acquisitions has led to theproduction of new product portfolios . through manufacturing well-known brandsof medicines such as Arimidex, Crestor, Nexium, Seroquel and Symbicort (AstraZeneca.,2012).Today,the company are continuously maintaining growth through partners and makingstrategic alliances with other pharmaceutical companies across the globe tochannel itsmarketing and sales operations through recentacquisitions, buying ZS Pharma for $2.7 billion in 2015 (AstraZeneca.

, 2015)and purchasing 55% shareholder stake of Acerta for $4 billion (AstraZeneca.,2015).     *This statisticabove shows the revenue of pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca from 2006 to2016. In 2011, the company’s revenue was around 35.39 billion US dollars.

 2.2.3 PfizerPfizeris an American, pharmaceutical, chemicals, agricultural and consumer healthcarecompany (Pfizer.

, 2017) founded in 1849 by Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhart(Forbes., 2017). Llamas M (2017) found that the company initially grew duringthe Civil War selling painkillers, preservatives, disinfectants, and solutions suchas iodine, morphine, chloroform, camphor and mercurial (Llamas M., 2017). Theauthor has written that the company later pioneered mass production of citricacid, which is used in products such as Coca-Cola, Dr.

Pepper, and Pepsi. Laterresearch of citric acid would assist the company in developing penicillin.Pfizer has established itself as a leader in the pharmaceutical industrythrough creating and developing product portfolios to increase its profits eachyear. The company continued to grow between the1980s and 90s, launching new medicines across a range of therapy areas, and in2000, Pfizer merged with pharmaceutical company Warner-Lambert, creating theworld’s fastest growing pharmaceutical company as well as mainly to gaincontrol of the company’s most popular cholesterol lowering product Lipitor,which has revolutionised Pfizer. Lipitor became the best-selling prescriptionmedicine ever, earning Pfizer $12 billion a year since 2007, a quarter of theiryearly revenue (Walsh R., 2010). In 2009, Pfizer merged with pharmaceuticalcompany Wyeth, and are continuing to grow through merging with morepharmaceutical companies to offer patients more diverse product portfolios ofmedicines (Gautam A.

, 2009).        *The statistic aboveshows the revenue of pharmaceutical company Pfizer from 2006 to 2016. In 2011,Pfizer came to around 65.25 billion U.

S. dollars of revenue.    2.2.4 Merck & Co.Merck& Co. is an American, pharmaceutical, vaccine, biologic therapies, andanimal health company founded in 1891 (merck.

com., 2017) when it split from theGerman company Merck after founder George Merck emigrated to the US to set up Merckas the US branch of his family’s company. The company was nationalised by theUS government and re-established as an independent American company (Nytimes.com.,2005).

 The article also mentions key productportfolios which have established Merck & Co. such as their firstcommercial smallpox vaccine in 1898, calcium and B vitamins between 1930s and40s, penicillin G in 1942, Streptomycin in 1946, and lastly drugs for allergicreactions/inflammation between the 1940s and 50s. Vij R (2015) has mentioned inthe article ‘How 60 Pharma CompaniesBecame 10 In Just 2 Decades’ that the company have grown through acquiringMedco Containment Services in 1993 for $6 billion and merged with Schering-Ploughin a $41 billion deal in 2009. These M have allowed Merck & Co. todevelop popular drugs such as their bestselling asthma and seasonal allergiesproduct Singulair (Nytimes.com., 2005.) Today, Merck & Co.

is one of the largestpharmaceutical companies in the world (Blake H., 2013), manufacturingprescription pharmaceuticals and vaccines and are continuously growing throughacquisitions (merck.com., 2017).    *This statistic above shows the total revenue ofpharmaceutical company Merck & Co. from 2006 to 2016.

In 2009, Merck’stotal revenue came to some 27.4 billion U.S. dollars.