Genetic Mutations and how radiation causes genetic mutations:Guiding questions:How do radiation or ultraviolet rays create genetic mutations?Are there any solutions to mutations?What are genetic mutations?What are the positives and negatives?Have there been any experiments involving mutations?Introduction:Did you know that scientists estimate that each one of us has 5 -10 potentially deadly mutations in our genes!. Although we all do have these mutated genes because there is usually only one copy of the bad gene, these diseases don’t manifest. Today the main concepts i will be talking about are genetic mutations and how radiation can cause it.Overview:In this research paper I will be talking about what a genetic mutation is, types of genetic mutations, ways they can occur, positives and negatives of genetic mutations, my hypothesis, was my hypothesis right?, does the issue have any solutions? And some people with genetic mutations.
Hypothesis:I predict that a genetic mutation is some type of alteration to the genetic sequence. I think that it can only occur if someone else in your family has passes it down to to. I also think that genetic mutations will affect the part of the body where it has occured. The reasoning to why I think this was is that I tried to think of the word itself (genetic mutations). I didn’t know much about genes so I looked at the second word which is mutation, which basically means a small or large alteration in something.What is a genetic mutation:So let’s start with the basics, what is a genetic mutation? A genetic mutation is as the genetic home reference website says “a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people.” there are seven types of genetic mutations.
Missense mutation, nonsense mutation, insertion, deletion, duplication, frameshift mutation, and repeat expansion. Genetic mutations can occur either from birth or can develop in your lifetime.A missense mutation is a mutation in which one DNA nucleotide is switched out with another one in a way that changes the amino acid specified.A nonsense mutation is a point mutation that introduces a premature stop codon into the part of the gene that encodes a protein. Insertion is a mutation when extra nucleotides are put into a DNA sequence, making it longer than it should be.
Deletion is a mutation when part of a DNA molecule is not copied during DNA replication.Duplication is a type of mutation in which a portion of a genetic material or a chromosome is duplicated or replicated resulting in multiple copies of that region. A frameshift mutation is a genetic mutation caused by a deletion or insertion in a DNA sequence that shifts the way the sequence is read. Trinucleotide repeat expansion is a sequence of three nucleotides that is repeated too many times in a section of a gene.Mutations from birth and mutations developing in your lifetime:Mutations from birth occur just as the definition says either a gene can be missing or an extra gene can be added. Mutations that develop later in your life are quite different.
It can be caused by UV radiation, chemicals, and viruses.How does radiation cause genetic mutations:We are constantly near radiation even though we might not notice it at first but it’s always there. You can find radiation near the sun, in x rays, cell phones, microwaves, tv screens and etc… UV rays for example can cause two two nucleotides that are beside each other to stick to one another. Thi distorts the DNA’s double helix shape. Your body tries to repair the dna by sending a team of proteins to remove 24 or so nucleotides in the dna strand, this process is called nucleotide excision repair.
But more powerful radiation can cause more damage. Gamma rays and x-rays can break one or both strands of the DNA backbone. Even one of these can cause a cell to die.
Beneficial mutations can allow a species to evolve but some mutations can cause premature aging and many types of cancer. My hypothesis was neither right or wrong. A genetic mutation is an alteration in the genetic sequence. But genetic mutations can occur in your lifetime.When mutations occur your body can also help to repair them by sending a group of proteins to repair them.
But sometimes they are not able to in that case depending on what time of mutation there are different solutions. For example inborn errors of metabolism is a genetic mutation that disrupt the production of specific enzymes, treatments sometimes include dietary changes or replacement of the particular enzyme that is missing. Limiting certain substances in the diet can help prevent the buildup of potentially toxic substances that are normally broken down by the enzyme. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy can help compensate for the enzyme shortage. These treatments are used to manage existing signs and symptoms and may help prevent future complications.
A fascinating new study has found that scientists can now fix diseases in experimental embryos.http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/02/health/crispr-human-embryos-gene-editing-study/index.htmlConclusion:In conclusion I hope you enjoy reading my research assignment. I definitely had an amazing time learning about mutations. This was fun and intriguing project to do and I hope to continue researching about this topic in my spare time. Hopefully with this research assignment I captivated you to learn more about this topic as well.