Francis LapidMr. AbramsWorld History AP16 January 2018Rome: Republic to Empire; Rise, Decline and DisintegrationThe founding of Rome: 753 B.C.EBased off a legend, ancient Rome was created from a dispute between twin brothers, Remus and Romulus, which ended up in the death of Remus. Thus, Romulus named the ancient city after himself. This creation of an entirely new city allowed for the soon to be expansion of the Roman empire in categories such as trade, military influence, and prosperity. The invasion of the Etruscans: Approx. 600 B.C.EIn approximately 600 BCE, the ancient city of Rome was under the reign of the Etruscans, a civilization originating from northern Italy. With Rome under its control, it built vast and important infrastructure that would prove vital to Rome (roads, temples, and walls). The construction of this infrastructure as well as the geography of Rome led to the increase of trade which increased Rome’s prosperity. After, the Romans overthrew the harsh rulership of the Etruscans and created a republic where there was no almighty powerful ruler. The Birth of the Roman Republic: 509 B.C.EAfter abolishing the harsh rulership of the Etruscan kings, the Roman nobles built public centers for political opinions to be shared, heard, and even debated upon. They also went as far as to create a constitutional-like government where elected consuls had civil and military power. Where the Roman senate checked and balanced the power by confirming all extensive actions. This action was useful in its development because government power can be checked by multiple bodies, not just by one almighty leader.Rome enters the Lain League: 493 B.C.EFirst Roman road ever built: 312 B.C.EThe first Roman road ever built was by a Roman called Appius Claudius Caecus. This construction of a pathway linking Rome to Tarentum opened up tremendous abilities one can do with a road. One of the most important factor being the ability to move troops, a very important factor in winning battles. This would also lead to the development of even more complex and lengthier roads that will connect the ends of Rome together.Successful military conquests of the Republic: 300 B.C.E – 246 B.C.EEven though the Roman Republic took care of problems within their borders, there were plenty of problems outside their borders. Thus, in order to deal with these problems Rome would just have to battle each and every one of them. Fortunately, they won all of them. Thus, the next thing the Romans had in mind was the Mediterranean. These conquests were important in Rome’s success because it demonstrated the sheer military power that was used to conquer all of these territories.The Punic Wars: 246 B.C.E – 146 B.C.EIn order to expand into the Western Mediterranean, the Romans had to face the Carthage colony first. Thus, the Romans and the Carthages battled 3 times for the expansion into the west resulting in the victory of the Romans. This is important to Rome’s rise because after the victory the Romans used their influence over the region to fund future expansions. Julius Caesar: 100 B.C.E – 44 B.C.E Viewed as a tyrant by the elites, Julius Caesar introduced liberal reforms that improved the life of the lower class. He also played a tremendous role in politics due to the vast amount of money he will spend to sponsor public attractions (i.n. gladiator battles against animals). Even more important to Rome’s rise as an empire is that he conquered the Gaul which lead to the expansion of the already growing empire. Augustus the emperor: 63 B.C – 14 A.DWhen the nephew of Julius Caesar took the throne, he utilized past mistakes from Caesar’s reign to help strengthen his. While preserving the traditional form of government he secretly gave himself more governmental power. Arranged the army’s line of succession to generals loyal to Augustus, a name bestowed upon him by the senate. With this, he helped Rome’s development by stabilizing the effects of the civil wars and allowed for possibilities of an empire to be created.The Roman Empire: 27 B.C.EWhen the republican government collapsed, partly due to the fact that emperors kept on giving themselves more and more power, the roman empire was established. This development meant that the emperor had more power than the people in which they have little to no say in how the government is supposed to run.Final expansion of the empire: 14 A.D – 106 A.DAfter the death of Augustus, numerous people have taken the throne and rule in distinct actions. Although Augustus did not want for the empire to expand anymore than it already has, people like Claudius and Trajan seized Britain, parts of northwestern Africa, and Dacia. This expansion opened up new developments that wealth Romans can invest in such as farms and estates. Roads which were previously used for troops are primarily used for communication and trade. Diocletian: 284 A.DAlthough not a real emperor, his proclaimed himself as emperor with the support of his troops that his commands. His actions tried to stabilize the empire almost like Augustus did: reorganize how the government functions. He does this by establishing a rule of four (tetrarchy). Tetrarchy proved fruitful at first but collapsed when Diocletian retired in 305 A.D.Constantine: 306 A.D.Being the first emperor to be Christian, he too tired what Diocletian did which was to stabilize the shaken empire from the very diverse ruling of various self proclaimed emperors. His actions led to the development of Rome’s view it has on Christianity that Constantine granted Christians freedom to worship making the church become legal. Theodosius: 379 A.D.Helped ease some problems with the Visigoths in the east. Was appointed co-emperor because of it and was made responsible for the eastern Roman empire. Standardized Christianity by outlawing all non-Christian religions. After his death the empire was split in two with their empires having completely different capitals. The collapse of the Roman Empire: 476 A.D.With just holding on from the previous attacks that are slowly whittling the empires hold on the world to a thread, the empire collapsed when Odoacer, a german leader, forced Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor or rome, out of power. With that, there was no one to control the empire resulting in the elimination of the Roman Empire.


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