France In France,there is a bonus-malus system based on type-approval CO2 emissions.Vehicles with CO2 emission between 0 and 20 g perkilometer receive a bonus of 27% of their purchase price up to €6300.
This category includes 100% electric vehicles (BEVs andFCVs). Vehicles with CO2 emissionsbetween 21 and 60 g/km are eligible fora bonus covering 20% of their purchase price up to EUR 4000. This category includes PHEVs. Vehicles with CO2 emissionsabove 131 g/km are subject to increased taxes which can mount up to EUR 8,0003637 38.
France has anational implementation plan based on a cluster model approach 39.This approach is deployed in threephases. In the first phase, infrastructure development is focused on local fleets in the early years.
In that sense, HRSsand FCVs are deployed based on the identification of local clients. This methodguarantees that a good HRS load factor is achievable from the beginning of theproject 39.In thismethod, Fleet vehicles with predictable driving and refueling patterns whichmake regular visits to a refueling station aredefined in a cluster. Then one or multiple HRSs are responsible for supporting a cluster. Figure 1. HRS supporting vehicle clusters-method considered in France’s HRS planning 39In the second phase, clusters are linked together, and inthe third phase, FCV full-scalecommercialization is pursued. A considerableamount of funding for the development of HRSs in France is from Europeanfunding. A European funding for threehydrogen refueling stations in Rodez,Sarreguemines, and Paris under the 35 MEUR H2 Mobility Europe project, with thebalance met by private sector companies within the Mobilité Hydrogène Francecoalition, is secured.
Another European funding of 4M EUR is from theConnecting Europe Facility for the deployment of 15 stations in the Normandyregion 40.In France, financial incentives can take the form of atax credit equivalent to 30% of a home charger or subsidies for theinstallation of residential or workplace chargers 19.French environmental and energy agency (ADEME) covers50% of costs for normal and fast charging points for BEVs and 30% of costs forrapid charge points if the chargers are publicly available. The “Ville de demain” project run by the Frenchenvironmental and energy agency (ADEME) covers 50% of costs for normal and fastcharging points for BEVs and 30% of costs for rapid charge points, aslong as these meet the criteria of being publicly available 41.
As of November2016, there were 14 HRSs in France 42. Table15 shows the number of charging points in France from2012 to 2016. Table 15.
Number of charging points in France(2012-2016) 19 Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Publicly accessible slow chargers 800 1700 1700 10122 14612 Publicly accessible fast chargers 9 102 127 543 1231 Total 809 1802 1827 10665 15843 As of November2016, there were 130 FCVs in France 42. Table16shows BEV and PHEV stock in France from 2012 to 2016. Table 16. BEV and PHEV stock in France (2012-2016) 19 year Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands) 2012 9.29 (93% BEV, 7% PHEV) 2013 18.91 (92% BEV, 8% PHEV) 2014 31.
54 (89% BEV, 11% PHEV) 2015 54.49(83% BEV, 17% PHEV) 2016 84 (80% BEV, 20% PHEV) Table17 shows France’s target for FCV and HRSs through2030 42.Table 17. France’s target for FCV and HRSs through2030 51 Year 2018-2019 2030 FCVs 1000 800,000 HRSs 100 600 France’s target for the number of electric vehicles is between 1 and 2 million by 2020 22. France has also announced that it is ending the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040.UKThe UK government provides incentives for the purchase of sixcategories of vehicles 44.Categoryone cars are cars that have CO2 emissions of less than 50g/km andcan travel at least 112km without any CO2 emissions.
The grantconsidered for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to amaximum of GBP1 4,500.Category one car models include BEVs of: BMW i3,BYD e6, Citroen CZero, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai IONIQ Electric, Kia SoulEV, Mercedes-BenzB-Class Electric Drive, Nissan e-NV200 (5-seater and 7-seater), Nissan LEAF,Peugeot iON, Renault Fluence, Renault ZOE, Smart fortwo electric drive, Smartforfour electric drive, Tesla Model S, Tesla Model X, Volkswagen e-up!,Volkswagen e-Golf and FCV model of ToyotaMirai. Category two vehicles have CO2 emissions of lessthan 50g/km and can travel at least 16km without any CO2 emissions. The grantconsidered for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to amaximum of GBP 2,500.
Category two car models include PHEVs of: BMW 225xe, BMW 330e, BMW 530e, Hyundai IONIQPHEV, Kia Niro PHEV, Kia Optima PHEV, Mercedes-Benz C350 e (with 17 inch rearwheels), Mercedes-Benz E350 e SE, MINI Countryman PHEV, Mitsubishi Outlander(except Commercial), Toyota Prius Plug-in, Vauxhall Ampera, Volkswagen GolfGTE, Volkswagen Passat GTE, Volvo V60 D5 Twin Engine, Volvo V60 D6 Twin Engine,Volvo XC90 T8 Twin Engine Momentum (2017 model year only), and Audi A3 e-tron.Category 3 vehicles have CO2emissions of 50 to 75g/km and can travel at least 32km without any CO2emissions. The grant considered for these type of vehicles covers 35% ofpurchase cost up to a maximum of GBP 2,500.This category of vehicles includes Mercedes-Benz E350 e AMG Line whichis a PHEV.1Exchange rate for GBP in December 6th, 2017 is 1 G ~ 1.34 USD