Family contested the ideas of the correct or


There is no single correct definition of what a family is (Understanding
Culture, Society and Politics pg. 39). According to Mike Morris’ Concise
Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology (2012). Family is a group of
people that have a common residence or relationship that share an economic and
reproductive ties.  But in the Census Bureau of Canada (2014) defines the
family as: a couple living common law and the children, either or both partners
and lone parent of any marital status at least one child living in the same
dwelling that child or those children. It is also stated that children may be
children by birth, marriage or adopt regardless of their age or marital status.
Grandchildren living to their grandparents also considered as census family.
But the United Nations uses the term nucleus family, as a family structure
where only consist a father, mother and child or children (Klein & White

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Defining what family is, is a big discourse that the concept of family is an
ideologically and politically loaded or imbued that contested the ideas of the
correct or morals ways in which people should conduct their lives (The Family
Today: Declining or Changing pg.41). In the Article I of Philippine Family Code
fixes the definition of marriage and the resulting family based on the union.
The conception of family changed along with the changes in society, wherein
divorce is legal and lesbian and gay marriage are diverse definitions of family
(Marsiglio, 2012). Many societies recognizes the same-sex marriage, a marriage
between two people of the same biological sex and or gender identity. Research
reveals that the structure of family evolved and sometimes consist a parents whose
male or female or both man and woman. The growth of divorce wherein a man and
woman are no longer a husband and wife, individuals whose involve in this
situation are merely affected, such as having a new family or second family and
which custody will the child/children will be with.

Although researches showed the changes the cultural conception of family, it is
always dominant in the traditional stimuli. Wherein blood related or marriages
relation is more effective than live-in partners and step-relationship have a
less foundation of structures in terms of having an ideal family (Eskridge,
2013). But along the way, Lober and Farrel (2012) argue that there is no
such entity as “family”.


In every society or in every branches of family individuals has a certain
social and cultural role that plays in order to survey. Like the definition of
family, it is the shared meanings of culture that suddenly adapt and change its
definition. Many individuals are addressing “sex” and “gender” as the same, but
they are distinctly different. Sex is label based on biology, while gender is
socially and psychologically created. —. According to Spade (2013)
individuals cannot choose what gender he/she wants, until in he/she will
determined the means of his/her conception of early stages. Gender developed in
means of social interaction or exploring more about themselves and figuring out
who or what he/she wants (Valentine, 2012).

Gender is learned by a child through communication or social interaction,
wherein gender will taught them and mold them of what they will be and who they
will be. In the young age of an individual, girls are taught to be
feminine- ladylikeness, effeminacy, emotional, softness, and girlishness,
as well as the boys that taught to be masculine- strong, tough, aggressive,
dependent and self-oriented.  According to the Thesis of Modern Family,
playing toys, clothing, household objects and works are acquired to each child
that will categorized them of what gender they are belong. Femininity and
Masculinity of an individual doesn’t define of who they want to be with or play
with, it is in the child’s decision.

Gender identity is a life time partner of each individual, wherein they reject
or accept those changes or shared meanings of what gender brought for them
(Staricek, 2012). The majority of shared meaning of gender is rooted in
cultural ideologies and how man and woman will act according to their roles in


Gender roles are learned inside the house and it starts in a family. Wherein
the idea of gender role, that girls are destined in the kitchen and boys are
the money maker of the family (Meisenbach, 2012). For men, work activities can
be an instrument to exercise their role of “providers” as well as the women,
social norms have traditionally ascribed the role of family career to them,
time spent on paid work outside the family often conflicts with that spent for
the family at home (Pollak, 2012). The idea wherein girls should love the pink
and pastel colors and boys should like the blue and dark colors, teaches the
child that girls is the designed to become a nurse and boys are the future
doctors (Jones, 2016). Women sees as the light of the house that took care of
her children, cook foods for her family, doing laundry and so many household
chores that men cannot accomplish in a day. — Men sees as the pillars of the
house, that gives protection to his family, provide financial support and do
mechanical works that women cannot provide for their house.

Gender roles play a big role in the family, wherein each
individual has their own part to do and to accomplish. In the article of
Gender Roles, it is stated the negative effects of gender roles such as forcing
one-self to change his/her identity because of the perspective of women should
be “submissive” and men should be “aggressive”. It is clear that
individual changes their personality in order to welcome themselves in the
society that has the same perspective. Another, the career choice of women
wherein they see as caring, comforting and sweet that not typically
designed to be a fisherman, pilot, driver, seaman or any technical jobs, they
see as a nurse, teacher, maids, flight attendants and some household works. In the
survey conducted in the year 2016, 57% college students are females because of
the knowledge that women are designed to go to college and be a professional
while men are encouraged to go to workforce even not to professionals to their
skills (Jones, 2016).

Metzger (2017) stated that today’s culture in gender role is still present
because of the traditional foresee that affects the current and future
generations, which may be set limits on personality and discrimination in work
place and that can lead to the destruction of a family. According to Dave
(2012) in the continuous changes that happen in today’s time, men tend to
do the household chores and women are the provider of the family, wherein women
are suffering in big works and men are taking care to his children.


In some studies, household chores is designed only for women and mechanical
works is for men. According to Singh (2014) women do the household chores
double as men can do inside the house, such as doing the laundry, ironing
clothes, cooking foods and many more chores that men cannot provide to their
children because of the hard time work in office. The study conducted in the
Springer’s Journal of Sex Roles, stated that regardless of men or women career’s
income, equality in household chores is important especially taking care of
his/her children. But as the researchers conducted the study and investigations
it is clearly stated that women are always taking care of the chores and
raising kids regardless in time (Horne, 2017). In the article of Amelia Hill,
“Lack of household chores making children less responsible” explains that even
in the early stage, parents are oblige to enlighten the child’s mind of what
roles did they have inside the house so that even he/she is a girl or boy,
he/she knows what part do they need to do regardless of traditional shared
meanings of gender roles and its culture conception. Giving the child’s must-do
task is a good practice of how they will manage their time over school works
and helps them to feel confident and responsible of what they are doing


Gender discrimination is a worldwide
issue in today’s phenomena, it is when there is a bias on person’s sex that
defines of his/her role as an individual in society (Wolfe, 2017). According to
the article of Civil Rights Law, discrimination is not always of what you are
or who you are, but a civil violation that takes many forms such as, sexual
harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and unequal pay for jobs. Gender
discrimination is sometimes started in one’s family household wherein women are
obliged to taking care of her children and men is the money maker of the

According to the study of Bharadwaj
and Dahl (2012) women stays at home because men are more masculine than women,
and also can produce a purity of work in the same time. It is also believe that
men can do mechanical things and dirty jobs such as cleaning electric fans,
fixing broken faucet and wood working. Wolfe (2012) argue that women can do
whatever a men can do, but in the Article of Changing the Face of Gender
Discrimination emphasizes that the argument of men and women’s authority is not
a big deal in today’s issue because men and women both have gender roles that
defines of what they are and who they are in their society, that men are also
demanding for the rights of women that wining out is not important but a change
that everyone serves a catalyst to protect and have their own rights weather
you are a men or women.