In its present state, Great Britain stands as a fascinating study of a successful multicultural project, which is rooted in particularly curious social foundations and a unique political culture. In particular, Britain has been able to avoid a great deal of conflict between minority populations and the native majority, despite a political system that makes no presumption of equality. This is a result of a unique set of orientations, which emphasise the virtue of fairness, despite the conspicuous absence of an egalitarian ideal in policy making.Jewish People 1880s->:1880 and 1905 had seen an influx of Ashkenazim Jews from the Russian pogroms, and then, of course, came the 1930’s with the persecution that began the Nazis’ programme of their destruction. There was some political racism in Britain that reflected what was happening on the continent, but not from the government and it met popular resistance in London. A strong working class Jewish element received support from other working class people, as well as in particular the support of Irish immigrants whom Jews had helped in their settlement.Jews in Britain number well under half a million, with half of their number in London and a strong concentration in Manchester. A majority of Jews in Britain today do not go back in line in Britain after 1880. There are under 400 synagogues but around 40% are not members.Russians, 1905:World War One-> Inter War Refuges:Eastern Europeans, Post, World War II->:Post-war Britain Between 1945 and 1951 the Labour party under Clement Attlee governed the country . Great Britain had lost much of its wealth and trade, and the government carried out many changes. The railways, coal mines, and gas and electricity industries were nationalised, that is, taken under state ownership and control. The state also took over hospitals and medical services (see HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE), started paying family allowances, and made arrangements for all people to receive pensions at the end of their working lives (see SOCIAL AND WELFARE SERVICES). Everyone agreed that poverty, homelessness, and unemployment must be prevented, but successive Conservative and Labour governments failed to find complete solutions to these problems.West Indies, Post World War II:When the ship HMS Windrush brought the first African Caribbean settlers to fill the labour shortage in Britain’s battered post-war economy in 1948, no one could know that the following three decades would produce unprecedented levels of immigration from both the Caribbean and South Asia. As disorientating as the resulting challenges turned out to be, the project of a multicultural society was approached in strikingly distinctive ways. Both the noticeable failures and the most subtle successes of the multicultural project are rooted in a political culture of astonishing peculiarity.The continuing immigration program after World War II has had a significant impact on the Anglo-Celtic tradition. The infusion of non-English speaking people from Europe and the Middle East in the surge of new produced a settlers that followed the end of World War II more diverse population. The abandonment in 1973 of the White Australia policy which had been followed by successive governments since federation has resulted in a smaller, but significant, intake from Asia. The national census of 1966 listed 1.3 per cent of those born overseas as coming from countries of south-east, north-east and south Asia and the islands of the Pacific. The 1991 census listed 27.7 per cent from these sources, and showed that more than 150 nationalities are now represented in the 3.7 million residents born overseas.SE Asia-India, Pakistan, Kenya, Uganda, Up To Present Day:Half of Britain’s immigrants now come from Asia. India had traditionally been regarded as the most valuable component of the British Empire, and its possession as proof of British world power. Yet the war had strained Britain’s capacity to direct a global empire and this helps explain Britain’s agreement to Indian self-government after the war.However the transition to independence was not smooth and Britain failed to achieve a constitutional settlement which both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League could accept. As a result, Imperial India was divided into the modern states of India and Pakistan. Communal tensions between Hindus and Muslims erupted into violence which the British could not quell and in which many thousands died.Indian independence initiated a wave of decolonisation, first in Asia and later in Africa. Many of the newly independent countries chose to remain in the Commonwealth, which came after the war to be seen as a flexible, multiracial community and as a vital means through which Britain could maintain its influence in the WorldConclusion:Britain is now a truly multicultural society, with 40 per cent of the population migrants or their children. Successive British governments have introduced measures to cater for the diverse population. In 1989, the Government outlined its National Agenda for a Multicultural Britain to provide a $20 million program aimed at acknowledging the cultural diversity of the British community, strengthening support measures such as English language programs for those of non-English speaking background, and improving processes for recognising overseas qualifications in the workplace. It also introduced a range of initiatives in the areas of community services and health, local government, consumer education and issues affecting migrant women.


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