Courseworks

Which of the four reasons below was most to blame for the failure of the Dardanelle’s campaign to achieve its military objectives 

Explain your answer by referring to all four reasons:* An Ill thought out plan,* Poor Command,* Bad Organisation,* Inadequate forces and supplies from Britain.The First World War started in 1914, most of the fighting had taken place in France and Belgium on the western front. The fighting had come to a stalemate so Britain turned to the east, in order to do this they had to take over turkey to gain the upper hand. The Dardanelle’s was a river that split up turkey; it was approximately 4 miles wide so it was literally impossible to take the navy through. Even though Britain knew this they still launched a naval attack but they failed miserably Britain was so desperate to take over Turkey, as it was a “gateway” to Germany as it would help surprise the Germans by attacking them from behind.Britain and Germany were both on stalemates at this point of the war. Both sides were equally matched, so the British had the Dardanelle’s campaign thought up as it would put Britain in front and maybe win the war. But turkey entered the war at this point as well which equalised things out because Britain “thought that they had the upper hand” but they were soon to find out that they were REALLY wrong. But when Turkey joined the war their geographical position was very critical as Britain had an open door to get through but this door was slammed shut when turkey joined the war. But as Britain organised the Dardanelle’s campaign they didn’t anticipate turkey joining and when they did find out they were so confident that they thought that war would be over in a week, but this was soon proved to be wrong, half of the Russians supplies came through the Dardanelle’s and if turkey joined the war then turkey could then stop these supplies coming and we needed to help Russia as Russia was an ally during this period of time. If Britain had won on the Dardanelle’s then they could have taken over Germany with ease, and also Russia could get their supplies in a more fast and easier way.Turkey and Germany made a pact between each other two days before the war. Winston Churchill introduced the Dardanelle’s plan and it was well supported but Churchill was soon to find his plan would never work, as the Dardanelle’s was really hard to get into with an entire navy arsenal, as the dardenelles was far too small and it was full of mines. But after all that Britain still decided to go ahead with the dardenelles campaign and they put it into action with so much confidence and they presumed that they would have turkey under there wing in ONE week! The australlian primeminister announced that he would help Britain to every last man and shilling, which is why they launched the gallopli campaign. Then the british prime minister called gallopli “The gorgeous east” as gallopli was willing and ready to help Britain in an instant and the british prime minister was really amazed and happy at this decision that was made by the australlian prime minister.But the british prime minister was really really wrong as the turks knew that they were coming and they were ready and prepared for their attack. The turks attack the british ships and half of them they destroyed which then lead no descision other than to retreat. Lord Kitchner had the idea of the gallopli plan and left it all up to Ian Hamilton, who received old maps and which were faulty as well and he was lacking weapons and was expected to win that war for the brits with thoses kind of supplies the only reason the british decided to send in Hamilton was because the brits tried a navy attack and they failed miserably, so that’s why they decided to send in some soldiers who were lead by Ian Hamilton, they sent Hamilton in a month later after the embrassing defeat of the brits navy attack. But even still the turks were ready and still were brave enough to face the brits head on, even though the brits sent in the A.N.Z.A.C troops who decided to attack various different beachheads at a time.The maps used in this campaign were out of date and faulty as well. The beaches were very small and had very little space to move around and had really high clifs. The generals that were leading the troops were very badly trained and didn’t have much experience or imagination. When the british came to fight they underestimated the strength and size od the campaign, for the brits this was a really big surprise.Sir William birdwood of australlia claimed the dardenelles campaign needed four points if it were to succeed;-* Keep troops hidden,* Use covering fire to protect troops,* Always control the soldiers and then fire,* Keep good communications!But these ideas were ignored very often which lead the war council in London to argue and the best way to attack, but they decided that there would be no supreme leader and they decided that they should have a separate department for each leader I.E: Navy, Army e.t.cThe A.N.Z.A.C troops were told to attack the Turkish trenches, but hey really underestimated the strenth of the turks as they had been practising and training as they knew that they would be attacked and they were ready to accept this challenge head on. The A.N.Z.A.C troops were told to believe victory at all costs but this was a bad strategey as it puts a lot of pressure on not be able to perform at their best. That’s why not a single soldier even though it was only about 10 metres away from them.The turks were so well trained that when ever and A.N.Z.A.C troop tried to leace the base he would get shot down within his first 2 steps, the generals were really bad as they were soo confident about there troops that they didn’t think they would need naval back up and thought that this problem of the turks in their way would be over and done with in one week, where as they had old faulty maps. The generals were really stomped as to what to do so they kept on telling soldiers to go forward EVEN thought it was pointless and often the soldiers were given no objectives to complete. Sometimes the officers had nervous breakdownsdue to all the stress. The generals in this campaign were really poorly trained and were very inexperienced which would be another reason why the brits could not win the dardenelles campaign.One of the main problems of the dardenelles campaign was that there was a lot of confusion from the beginning. Then army had separate leaders this meant there was little co-ordination. The navy was rarely available to back up the allied landings and many soldiers were killed before reaching the beaches. Most of the maps were old and out of date, the dardenelles is only 4.5 metres at its widest which is why it would be hard to launch a naval as there isn’t much space and there was mines all over the place, also this was a vanurable position as well as the turks could attack from both sidesleaving no opposition, many of the ships were destroyed as , the turks were very well trained and prepared for this invasion.The turks were really going all out as the had mines and 6 inch howitzer guns, but Britain didn’t seem to care they just wanted to win at all costs and attacked blindly. First of all they srated attacking in broad daylight “NO SURPRISE THERE” then the navy failed which is why “Kitchner” sent in the army, no element of surprise there neither as it was so obvious that the brits would attack again, so this time the turks EXPECTED the brits and waited for them the turks also trained very hard.The turks also knew that the british troops would land in gallopli and the turks had their defences ready. There was a lot of confusion from the begning there was no supreme leader, the army and the navy had separate leaders so it was really hard for the navy and army to see eye to eye with each other. There was also really poor intelligence the maps were out of date, the soldiers ended up coming out of the wrong beaches as they weren’t trained well enough, most of them hadn’t ben given any instructions on what to do. Gallopli beaches had very steep clifs which was really hard to go round also the A.N.Z.A.C’s expected flat beaches and arrived at the wrong beach. The officers were making descisions from behind the trenches and they didn’t know what was going on in the war.The A.N.Z.A.C soldiers on the beaches of faught with great courage. Many were prepared to die for the empire and after the war many courageous austrailians were disappointed with the brits as they felt they let them down. The british had sent had sent independent supplies and forces to help the A.N.Z.A.C’s as they felt. They were refused to send troops to the western front, as it was too dangerous. A.N.Z.A.C troops were taken from Egypt and again these troops were poorly organised. The soldiers had no naval back up at the landings and there were either killed, drowened or blown away before reeachin the shore. A.N.Z.A.C troops were very brave and carried on fightening and eventually made their way up the clifs, but all their efforts failed. Soldiers were thinly spread out over long distances and were told to attack. Now this is just terrible as obviously hard to win an invasion. Soldiers did not have enough food or weapons. The brits thought that this invasion would be over and won in one single week and underestimated the turks strength. Many austraillians felt the british had let them down as the british did no back them up as much they should have and the british didn’t supply them with enough resources and nessities to get through this rampage.Having studied the evidence I believe that bad organisation was the core of all the problems in the dardenelles campaign. As I think that was the only reason why this campaign failed as from bad organisation came other problems such as “poor command, an ill thought out campaign and inadequate forces and supplies from Britain,” as it was all connected I think for a second that if everything was planned and prepared then there would be no reason for the british to loose at turkey so terribly!

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