In a decade the world went through a lot of changes. It experienced a global depression and the start of the biggest war the world has ever seen. World War 2. Could this of been avoided.By 1930 the Great Depression was in full swing. Many people all around the world had no money and were searching for answers. For Germany and Italy the answer was found in Fascism. People believed what was needed were strong leaders and direction. For a country with dictatorship war was an easy option, They could conscript the unemployed and increase the economy through the arms industry.If the war could be stopped you have to look for failures in peace process. The first failure was in the east. In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria in an attempt to capture markets for their goods. The League of Nations investigated but were only able to reaffirm what the world already new. That Japan was the aggressor. They took no effective measures to stop it and were disgracedThe next Failure came from Britain. After Hitler’s failed Anchluss with Austria. Britain with out consulting the French agreed to Germanys Navel rearmament. This must have raised concerns with the French about Britons reliability.In 1935 the Stresa Front was created between Britain, France and Italy. It was designed to counter Hitler’s moves. It largely depended on Mussolini’s help because he had already shown in Austria that he was prepared to fight.Mussolini was an expansionist. He wanted to control Mediterranean Sea and the counties around it. (Similar to the Roman Empire). Mussolini used a war with Abyssinia to divert Italy’s Attention away from the Great Depression. Abyssinia did not stand a chance against Italy’s modern Army and was invaded with out a declaration of war.Britain and France did not want to offend Mussolini because he was vital to containing Hitler. It would have been possible to stop him if the Suez Canal had of been closed and cutting his oil supply but American oil companies would not agree. The British navy didn’t want to get caught up in the Mediterranean Sea while the Japanese were expanding in the pacific. So the British and French sighed the Hoare-laval pact, which effectively gave Italy most of Abyssinia for nothing. The publics saw this as betrayal and forced limited Sanctions on Italy. Mussolini was offend and sought other ways of expanding. The League of Nations had failed to protect Abyssinia and had lost Italy.Hitler used the Abyssinen crises to his advantage and sent troops in to the Rhineland. This was in violation of the Treaty of Versailles and the treaty of Locarno but the French did nothing. Their government was splintered. Right wing parties openly pro-NAZI. With troops in the Rhineland it made it an attack on France more practical.The Spanish civil war, 1936-1939. The Right wing General Franco rebelled against the Republican government. Hitler and Mussolini sent equipment to help the rebels. Mussolini saw this a matter of honour. Hitler was less committed but saw a chance to gain Spain’s ion ore resources and test his new aircraft and equipment. In one operation they destroyed an entire city, Guernica. (This was the fist a city had been destroyed by air). Stalin sent help to the republican but this only helped raise fears of a Communist revolt. Britain, France and the USA just stood and remained neutral. The war helped bond the Italians and the Germans together. While reiterating the fact that the major powers of the war were not prepared to act.Neville Chamberlain took up the Appeasement policy in 1937. This policy was designed to avert war by making concessions. The policy gave time for Britain to re-arm but Germany gained the most from the delays.Britain and France were terrified of communism. It had growing strength in both countries and if it were taken up would mean the end of Britain aristocracy. This frightened upper society and Hitler was seen as a barrier.The second Anschluss with Austria came in March 1938. Chamberlain appeased the actions of Germany hopping this would be there last expansion. It wasn’t and they had failed to let Austria remain a free country. This gave Hitler increased confidence.The Czechoslovakian crisis was the height of appeasement. Hitler wanted Sudetenland (a German speaking part of Czechoslovakia.) The Czechs offered it independence but that was not what Hitler wanted. Last minute crisis talks were held to avert war. It was called the Munich conference. The Czechoslovakia’s fate was decided with out them even being there. They were to hand over the Sudetenland and all there western defences. On the 15th of March Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia. He was exposed as a lire and the appeasement policy ended.


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