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The two major liberal reforms, old age pensions and national insurance, were limited

* The reforms initiated by Lloyd George had to be paid for. To do this, Lloyd George, as Chancellor of the Exchequer introduces a budget in 1909 which taxed the rich and landowners. At first, the House of Lords, which was full of landowners, opposed the budget.* Many people still believed that everyone should look after themselves and their families. They thought it was wrong for the state to step in and help people as this might encourage them to become lazy. It would make them dependant and less able to stand on their own feet.* However, after a general election in January 1910 that Liberals won, the House of Lords had to agree to the budget.How Effective were the Liberal ReformsThe two major liberal reforms, old age pensions and national insurance, were limited.Pensions* Were 70 years old* Had income of below �21 a year* Were British citizen who had been living in Britain for more than 20 years.* Had not been in prison during the ten years before claiming pension.* Had no habitually failed to work according to their ability, opportunity and need.Only half a million elderly peope qualified for state old pensions, due to these demands.National insuranceNational insurance against sickness initially covered ten million men and four million women. It was only for people who:* Were on low incomes* Made the contributions. T did not cover their dependents.National insurance against unemployment initially covered around 2.25 million workers, most of them skilled men. It was restricted to:* Trades where seasonal unemployment was common, including building shipbuilding and engineering.The made a start in attacking poverty by changing ideas and getting away to the whole self help argument.They achieved:* Less unemployment* Pensions* Sick pay/unemployment pay* Children’s reformsThe limitations were:* Extent to success* Qualifications on who received national insurance* Unemployment money designed so people couldn’t live it off indefinitely.* Look at requirements of pensions* Despite royal commission reform, literals did nothing about changing the poor law.158,000 were getting school meals, once a day. This is pretty impressive and poor children benefited from this imensly. School medical inspections, also meant that there children would be diagnosed for free but had to pay for treatment. They also put in the children’s act, which made children more important.As a result of this evidence, the liberals reform suggest, that this was defiantly a start but by no means were they helping everyone.Benji Gourgey 4B Opposition to the reforms 18/12/2007

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