Spolecnï¿½ dopravnï¿½ politika patrï¿½ mezi ty politiky Evropskï¿½ unie, kterï¿½ se staly soucï¿½stï¿½ procesu evropskï¿½ integrace v dobe zaloï¿½enï¿½ EHS v roce 1957, a ustanovenï¿½ o tï¿½to politice Spolecenstvï¿½ proto muï¿½eme najï¿½t uï¿½ v Rï¿½mskï¿½ smlouve. Bylo k tomu nekolik zï¿½vaï¿½nï¿½ch duvodu:* Ekonomickï¿½ integrace a jejï¿½ postup rozï¿½iruje obchod mezi zememi, coï¿½ si vyï¿½aduje spolehlivï¿½ fungovï¿½nï¿½ dopravy. Tento sektor je klï¿½covï¿½m odvetvï¿½m, coï¿½ je potvrzovï¿½no takï¿½ tï¿½m, ï¿½e jeho prï¿½spevek k rustu hrubï¿½ho domï¿½cï¿½ho produktu (7-8 %) je vetï¿½ï¿½ neï¿½ prï¿½spevek zemedelstvï¿½.* Doprava napomï¿½hï¿½ volnï¿½mu pohybu zboï¿½ï¿½ a osob, coï¿½ je predpoklad jednotnï¿½ho vnitrnï¿½ho trhu. V sektoru dopravy je treba vytvorit takovï¿½ konkurencnï¿½ podmï¿½nky, aby se dopravnï¿½ nï¿½klady nestaly bariï¿½rou obchodu.* Dopravnï¿½ sektor pohlcuje 40 % verejnï¿½ch investic v zemï¿½ch Unie a jeho fungovï¿½nï¿½ ovlivnuje mnoho dalï¿½ï¿½ch sfï¿½r a hospodï¿½rskï¿½ch cinnostï¿½. Citelnï¿½ jsou dopady na regionï¿½lnï¿½ rozvoj, na situaci ï¿½ivotnï¿½ho prostredï¿½, na utvï¿½renï¿½ krajiny a plï¿½novï¿½nï¿½ velkï¿½ch aglomeracï¿½, na spotrebu energie aj. Postavenï¿½ dopravnï¿½ho systï¿½mu v zemï¿½ch Spolecenstvï¿½, mï¿½-li bï¿½t vnitrnï¿½ trh skutecne funkcnï¿½, vyï¿½aduje integraci mezi zememi prï¿½ve v tomto sektoru. Vyï¿½aduje takï¿½ formulaci spolecnï¿½ch pravidel pro vï¿½echny jeho ï¿½castnï¿½ky a jistou harmonizaci predpisu. Platï¿½ to tï¿½m spï¿½e, ï¿½e se tento sektor sklï¿½dï¿½ z nekolika oboru: silnicnï¿½ dopravy, ï¿½eleznic, vodnï¿½ch cest, leteckï¿½ a nï¿½mornï¿½ dopravy. Integrace mï¿½ za ï¿½kol stanovit spolecnï¿½ pravidla platnï¿½ pro vï¿½echny obory mezinï¿½rodnï¿½ dopravy a odstranit prekï¿½ky, kterï¿½ brï¿½nï¿½ jejï¿½mu rozvoji.V tomto duchu formuluje ï¿½koly spolecnï¿½ dopravnï¿½ politiky takï¿½ Rï¿½mskï¿½ smlouva o EHS, kterï¿½ mluvï¿½ o zavedenï¿½ spolecnï¿½ch pravidel mezinï¿½rodnï¿½ dopravy, zajiï¿½tenï¿½ volnï¿½ho prï¿½stupu k poskytovï¿½nï¿½ dopravnï¿½ch sluï¿½eb uvnitr kaï¿½dï¿½ho clenskï¿½ho stï¿½tu pro dopravce z dalï¿½ï¿½ch clenskï¿½ch stï¿½tu, o tom, ï¿½e ï¿½ï¿½dnï¿½ odvetvï¿½ dopravy nemï¿½ bï¿½t stï¿½ty preferovï¿½no. Od toho se ocekï¿½valo, ï¿½e se do sektoru vnesou konkurencnï¿½ podmï¿½nky, takï¿½e spolecnï¿½ postup v dopravnï¿½ politice mel snï¿½it nï¿½klady. Smlouva se omezovala na koordinaci postupu ve vybranï¿½ch oborech dopravy: na ï¿½eleznicï¿½ch, na silnicï¿½ch a vnitrnï¿½ch vodnï¿½ch cestï¿½ch (tedy bez nï¿½mornï¿½ a leteckï¿½ dopravy).Ve spolecnï¿½ dopravnï¿½ politice po dlouhou dobu, prakticky aï¿½ do zahï¿½jenï¿½ prechodu k vnitrnï¿½mu trhu, nedochï¿½zelo k ï¿½ï¿½dnï¿½mu vï¿½raznejï¿½ï¿½mi pokroku. Prï¿½cina tkvï¿½ v tom, ï¿½e kaï¿½dï¿½ clenskï¿½ stï¿½t hï¿½jil svï¿½ nï¿½rodnï¿½ zï¿½jmy, ï¿½e mnoho dopravnï¿½ch oboru melo charakter monopolu (napr. ï¿½eleznice nebo leteckï¿½ doprava), ï¿½e stï¿½t poskytoval dotace vybranï¿½m dopravnï¿½m oborum (napr. ï¿½eleznicnï¿½ doprave) a ochranoval domï¿½cï¿½ zamestnanost.Situace se zacala menit v druhï¿½ polovine 80. let po prijetï¿½ Jednotnï¿½ho evropskï¿½ho aktu v souvislosti s prechodem k jednotnï¿½mu vnitrnï¿½mu trhu. Vï¿½sledkem rady kroku spolecnï¿½ dopravnï¿½ politiky je zkvalitnenï¿½ dopravy, snï¿½enï¿½ cen jako dusledek souteï¿½e mezi ruznï¿½mi obory i ruznï¿½mi prepravci, lepï¿½ï¿½ spojenï¿½ mezi hlavnï¿½mi centry i vzdï¿½lenejï¿½ï¿½mi oblastmi, rozvoj dopravnï¿½ infrastrukturu (dï¿½lnice, ï¿½eleznice, prï¿½stavy, letiï¿½te).Ponekud pikantnï¿½ je, ï¿½e na pomalï¿½ postup v rï¿½mci spolecnï¿½ dopravnï¿½ politiky upozornil v roce 1983 i Evropskï¿½ parlament, kdyï¿½ podal u Evropskï¿½ho soudnï¿½ho dvora ï¿½alobu na Radu ministru za to, ï¿½e neplnï¿½ ustanovenï¿½ Rï¿½mskï¿½ smlouvy ohledne dopravy. V roce 1985 pak dal Soudnï¿½ dvur parlamentu za pravdu a ï¿½ï¿½dal Radu, aby proces harmonizace dopravy urychlila.Po prijetï¿½ Maastrichtskï¿½ smlouvy o Evropskï¿½ unii (1992) se zacala odvï¿½jet aktivita Unie v novï¿½ oblasti, kterï¿½ dostala nï¿½zev “transevropskï¿½ sï¿½te”. Jde o infrastrukturu v oblasti dopravnï¿½, telekomunikacnï¿½ a energetickï¿½, vcetne ropovodu a plynovodu, jimiï¿½ by mely bï¿½t propojeny nï¿½rodnï¿½ sï¿½te. Projekt transevropskï¿½ch sï¿½tï¿½ je logickï¿½m dovrï¿½enï¿½m ï¿½kolu vytvorit “prostor bez vnitrnï¿½ch hranic”, usnadnit propojenï¿½ uvnitr tohoto rozsï¿½hlï¿½ho prostoru, zkrï¿½tit vzdï¿½lenosti.V roce 1994 byl prijat program priorit pro rozvoj dopravy a stanoveno 14 prednostnï¿½ch akcï¿½, predevï¿½ï¿½m v ï¿½eleznicnï¿½ doprave.Projekt transevropskï¿½ch sï¿½tï¿½, do nichï¿½ mï¿½ bï¿½t zapojena takï¿½ Ceskï¿½ republika, je velmi nï¿½kladnï¿½. Pro jejich vybudovï¿½nï¿½ se spojujï¿½ prostredky Unie a prostredky clenskï¿½ch stï¿½tu. Bylo odhadnuto, ï¿½e do roku 2010 bude na tyto projekty vynaloï¿½eno 400 mld. eur. Dalï¿½ï¿½m zdrojem pro krytï¿½ vï¿½daju jsou prostredky strukturï¿½lnï¿½ch fondu a takï¿½ Fondu soudrï¿½nosti. Rovneï¿½ se k temto ï¿½celum vyuï¿½ï¿½vajï¿½ prostredky Evropskï¿½ investicnï¿½ banky.Leteckï¿½ doprava v EUZatï¿½mco evropskï¿½ trh muï¿½e nynï¿½ bï¿½t “jednotnï¿½”, obloha nad Evropou mï¿½ pred sebou jeï¿½te dlouhou cestu. Vï¿½hled na rostoucï¿½ zahlcenï¿½ na letovï¿½ch trasï¿½ch a na letiï¿½tï¿½ch – se zï¿½sadnï¿½ hrozbou pro bezpecnost – nevyhnutelne vede k rozvoji technologie a predpisu, kterï¿½ poskytnou efektivnï¿½ a spolehlivï¿½ systï¿½m, nabï¿½dnou zvï¿½ï¿½enou kapacitu a sjednotï¿½ vï¿½echny aspekty rï¿½zenï¿½ letovï¿½ho provozu. To je nejvyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ priorita v srdci evropskï¿½ho leteckï¿½ho vï¿½zkumu.Nï¿½rust v leteckï¿½ preprave byl dramatickï¿½. Koncem roku 2000 je celkovï¿½ pocet pohybu letadel (odletu a prï¿½letu) o 18% vyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ neï¿½ v r. 1997. Ale podle statistiky AEA (Asociace evropskï¿½ch leteckï¿½ch spolecnostï¿½) v 1. ctvrtletï¿½ 2003 zaznamenalo 20,2% letu zpoï¿½denï¿½ vï¿½ce neï¿½ 15 minut v porovnï¿½nï¿½ se 13% v r. 1993. “Existuje mnoï¿½stvï¿½ duvodu zpoï¿½denï¿½,” vysvetluje Patrick Bernard, vedeckï¿½ ï¿½rednï¿½k DG Energie a doprava. “Polovina z nich muï¿½e bï¿½t pripisovï¿½na problï¿½mum leteckï¿½ch spolecnostï¿½. Ale odhaduje se, ï¿½e nejmï¿½ne 50% zpoï¿½denï¿½ je zpusobeno stï¿½le kritictejï¿½ï¿½mi problï¿½my se rï¿½zenï¿½m letovï¿½ho provozu, zahrnujï¿½cï¿½mi letadla na zemi i ve vzduchu.”Nezï¿½visle na pomeru neprï¿½mï¿½ch nï¿½kladu k cestujï¿½cï¿½m je odhadovï¿½no, ï¿½e tato zpoï¿½denï¿½ stojï¿½ leteckï¿½ spolecnosti na nï¿½kladech ekvivalent 10 miliard euro rocne z hlediska mï¿½ne efektivnï¿½ho vyuï¿½itï¿½ zarï¿½zenï¿½ a personï¿½lu, plï¿½tvï¿½nï¿½ pohonnï¿½mi hmotami a kompenzacï¿½ cestujï¿½cï¿½m.V EU existuje konflikt zï¿½jmu mezi deregulovanï¿½m leteckï¿½m prumyslem a spolecnostmi, kterï¿½ poskytujï¿½ sluï¿½by v leteckï¿½ preprave (kontrola leteckï¿½ho provozu, letiï¿½te, atd.). Tyto spolecnosti operujï¿½ stï¿½le z lokï¿½lnï¿½ perspektivy a opï¿½rajï¿½ se o kontrolnï¿½ systï¿½my a pravidla jednotlivï¿½ch stï¿½tu. Narustajï¿½cï¿½ globalizaci leteckï¿½ prepravy chce Evropskï¿½ unie zvlï¿½dnout pomocï¿½ koordinovanï¿½ spolecnï¿½ politiky leteckï¿½ prepravy. Verï¿½, ï¿½e jen tak si budou moci evropskï¿½ leteckï¿½ spolecnosti a leteckï¿½ prumysl vybudovat pevnou pozici v celosvetovï¿½m merï¿½tku.Po rozsï¿½hlï¿½ restrukturalizaci evropskï¿½ho leteckï¿½ho prumyslu nezustane v Evrope podle komisarky pro oblast dopravy mï¿½sto vï¿½ce neï¿½ pro ctyri aï¿½ pet mezinï¿½rodnï¿½ch leteckï¿½ch spolecnostï¿½, plus nekolik regionï¿½lnï¿½ch prepravcu. Leteckï¿½ doprava se potï¿½kala s vï¿½nï¿½mi problï¿½my jiï¿½ pred zï¿½rijovï¿½mi ï¿½toky. Mnohï¿½ spolecnosti byly ve velmi ï¿½patnï¿½m stavu. 11. zï¿½rï¿½ pouze celï¿½ proces urychlilo. Evropskï¿½ nebe melo bï¿½t restrukturalizovï¿½no jiï¿½ dï¿½vno. ï¿½toky pouze vyzdvihly nalï¿½havost tï¿½to potreby.Jednotnï¿½ evropskï¿½ nebeKoncem roku 2001 predstavila Komise plï¿½n na vytvorenï¿½ “Jednotnï¿½ho evropskï¿½ho nebe” do roku 2004. Jednï¿½ se o prijetï¿½ specifickï¿½ch smernic, jeï¿½ by zajistily vetï¿½ï¿½ prehlednost a lepï¿½ï¿½ organizaci lï¿½tï¿½nï¿½ v Evrope, vcetne systï¿½mu navigacnï¿½ch sluï¿½eb, koordinace mezi civilnï¿½m a vojenskï¿½m vyuï¿½itï¿½m leteckï¿½ho prostoru, rï¿½zenï¿½ leteckï¿½ dopravy atd.Cï¿½lem tohoto narï¿½zenï¿½ je vytvorit nejpozdeji do 31. prosince 2004 evropskï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor, kterï¿½ bude zaloï¿½en a provozovï¿½n jako jednotnï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor poskytujï¿½cï¿½ leteckï¿½ doprave ve Spolecenstvï¿½ch co nejlepï¿½ï¿½ bezpecnostnï¿½ podmï¿½nky a celkovou efektivitu a zajiï¿½tujï¿½cï¿½ kapacitnï¿½ ï¿½roven, kterï¿½ bude vyhovovat poï¿½adavkum jak civilnï¿½ch, tak vojenskï¿½ch uï¿½ivatelu. Tento jednotnï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor bude nazï¿½vï¿½n “Jednotnï¿½ evropskï¿½ nebe”.Narï¿½zenï¿½ stanovuje vï¿½eobecnï¿½ zï¿½sady prï¿½stupu k rï¿½zenï¿½ procesu vytvï¿½renï¿½ Jednotnï¿½ho evropskï¿½ho nebe a urcuje oblasti pusobnosti Spolecenstvï¿½ a prostredky nezbytnï¿½ k vytvorenï¿½ Jednotnï¿½ho evropskï¿½ho nebe, jako jsou ruznï¿½ organizacnï¿½ struktury, procedury a zdroje. Pri tom zï¿½roven prihlï¿½ï¿½ k cinnosti organizace Eurocontrol a jejï¿½mu ï¿½kolu vytvorit celoevropskï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor.Motivace:* Vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor je spolecnï¿½m zdrojem a je treba, aby byl vyuï¿½ï¿½vï¿½n flexibilnï¿½m zpusobem se zajiï¿½tenï¿½m poctivï¿½ho a transparentnï¿½ho naklï¿½dï¿½nï¿½ pro vï¿½echny uï¿½ivatele pri soucasnï¿½m respektovï¿½nï¿½ bezpecnostnï¿½ch a obrannï¿½ch potreb clenskï¿½ch stï¿½tu a jejich zï¿½vazku v mezinï¿½rodnï¿½ch organizacï¿½ch;* Efektivnï¿½ usporï¿½dï¿½nï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru je zï¿½kladnï¿½m prvkem pro zvï¿½ï¿½enï¿½ kapacity systï¿½mu letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb, pro poskytnutï¿½ optimï¿½lnï¿½ reakce na ruznï¿½ poï¿½adavky uï¿½ivatelu a pro dosaï¿½enï¿½ nejflexibilnejï¿½ï¿½ho vyuï¿½itï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru;* Cinnosti Eurocontrolu potvrzujï¿½, ï¿½e sï¿½t leteckï¿½ch tratï¿½ a struktura vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru nemohou bï¿½t realisticky rozvï¿½jeny v izolaci, nebot kaï¿½dï¿½ jednotlivï¿½ clenskï¿½ stï¿½t je nedï¿½lnï¿½m prvkem evropskï¿½ sï¿½te usporï¿½dï¿½nï¿½ letovï¿½ho provozu;* Mel by bï¿½t vytvoren urcitï¿½ jednotnï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor pro tratovï¿½ letovï¿½ provoz v hornï¿½m vzduï¿½nï¿½m prostoru. Melo by bï¿½t v souladu s tï¿½m vyznaceno rozhranï¿½ mezi takovï¿½m vzduï¿½nï¿½m prostorem a regionï¿½lnï¿½mi a mï¿½stnï¿½mi vzduï¿½nï¿½mi prostory;* Rozdï¿½ly v organizaci spoluprï¿½ce civilnï¿½ho a vojenskï¿½ho sektoru ve Spolecenstvï¿½ brï¿½nï¿½ jednotnï¿½mu a vcasnï¿½mu usporï¿½dï¿½nï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru a provï¿½denï¿½ zmen. ï¿½spech koncepce jednotnï¿½ho nebe zï¿½visï¿½ na efektivnï¿½ spoluprï¿½ci mezi civilnï¿½mi a vojenskï¿½mi orgï¿½ny. Je nezbytnï¿½ optimalizovat mï¿½sto, velikost a casovï¿½ doby pouï¿½itï¿½ sektoru vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru vyclenenï¿½ch pro vojenskï¿½ potreby, zejmï¿½na behem dob ï¿½picky pro civilnï¿½ leteckou dopravu a ve vzduï¿½nï¿½m prostoru s vysokou hustotou provozu.Aktuï¿½lnï¿½ situace:Zcela odliï¿½nï¿½ nï¿½zory a postoje vlï¿½d clenskï¿½ch zemï¿½ Evropskï¿½ unie a clenu Evropskï¿½ho parlamentu na problematiku vytvï¿½renï¿½ legislativnï¿½ho rï¿½mce programu Single European Sky (SES) prinesl pocï¿½tek cervence. Pri druhï¿½m parlamentnï¿½m ctenï¿½ nï¿½vrhu programu, kterï¿½ mï¿½ mimo jinï¿½ za cï¿½l sjednotit hornï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ prostor clenskï¿½ch zemï¿½ Evropskï¿½ unie, zajistit harmonizovanï¿½ poskytovï¿½nï¿½ letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb a umoï¿½nit vzï¿½jemnou kompatibilitu pouï¿½ï¿½vanï¿½ch technologiï¿½, se prokï¿½zalo, ï¿½e “evropskï¿½” pojetï¿½ integrity vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru stï¿½le narï¿½ï¿½ na konzervativnï¿½ prï¿½stup nekterï¿½ch zemï¿½, zejmï¿½na Francie a Velkï¿½ Britï¿½nie.V rï¿½mci samotnï¿½ podstaty programu patrï¿½ mezi nejvetï¿½ï¿½ problï¿½my zejmï¿½na civilne-vojenskï¿½ spoluprï¿½ce a novï¿½ pojï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ suverenity stï¿½tu ve vlastnï¿½m vzduï¿½nï¿½m prostoru s ohledem na predpoklï¿½danï¿½ vytvï¿½renï¿½ “funkcnï¿½ch bloku vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru”. Tyto bloky majï¿½ bï¿½t podle nï¿½vrhu vytvï¿½reny bez ohledu na stï¿½vajï¿½cï¿½ hranice stï¿½tu. Princip delegace kontroly letovï¿½ho provozu v hornï¿½m vzduï¿½nï¿½m prostoru stï¿½tu na poskytovatele letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb jinï¿½ho stï¿½tu v zï¿½jmu zajistit zvï¿½ï¿½enï¿½ kapacity a optimï¿½lnï¿½ propustnost vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru se nesetkï¿½vï¿½ s prï¿½liï¿½nï¿½m pochopenï¿½m. Jeï¿½te v dobe reckï¿½ho predsednictvï¿½ EU bylo oznï¿½meno, ï¿½e nekterï¿½ zeme nebudou podporovat jakoukoli zmenu v soucasnï¿½ povaze suverenity vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru.To koneckoncu potvrdilo i spolecnï¿½ stanovisko Rady Evropskï¿½ unie z brezna letoï¿½nï¿½ho roku, kterï¿½ zduraznilo skutecnost, ï¿½e zavedenï¿½ programu SES nebude mï¿½t vliv na suverenitu clenskï¿½ch zemï¿½ ve vlastnï¿½m vzduï¿½nï¿½m prostoru. Ministri dopravy dï¿½le rozhodli o tom, ï¿½e pravidla vyplï¿½vajï¿½cï¿½ z programu SES nebudou aplikovï¿½na v prï¿½pade vojenskï¿½ch operacï¿½ a vï¿½cvikovï¿½ch letu.Povaha dodatku ke spolecnï¿½mu stanovisku, jeï¿½ Evropskï¿½ parlament schvï¿½lil 3. cervence, tak budou vï¿½st s nejvetï¿½ï¿½ pravdepodobnostï¿½ k jednï¿½nï¿½ Dohodovacï¿½ho vï¿½boru. Pri parlamentnï¿½ debate byly vlï¿½dy clenskï¿½ch zemï¿½ obvineny ze zachovï¿½vï¿½nï¿½ konzervativnï¿½ho prï¿½stupu k pojï¿½mï¿½nï¿½ suverenity vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru, zaloï¿½enï¿½ho predevï¿½ï¿½m na zï¿½jmech vlastnï¿½ obrannï¿½ politiky a potrebï¿½ch komercnï¿½ho vyuï¿½itï¿½. Program SES v podobe spolecnï¿½ho stanoviska Rady Evropskï¿½ unie se tak stï¿½vï¿½ mï¿½ne “evropskï¿½m” a vï¿½stupy mï¿½ne efektivnejï¿½ï¿½, neï¿½ bylo zamï¿½ï¿½leno pri tvorbe jeho zï¿½kladnï¿½ho poslï¿½nï¿½.Vzhledem k nastalï¿½ situaci lze oznacit pet zï¿½kladnï¿½ch principu, kterï¿½ jsou z hlediska postoje Evropskï¿½ho parlamentu nejduleï¿½itejï¿½ï¿½ pro dalï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½speï¿½nou implementaci programu SES:ï¿½ tesnï¿½ zapojenï¿½ Evropskï¿½ agentury pro bezpecnost letovï¿½ho provozu (EUROCONTROL) ve vï¿½ech fï¿½zï¿½ch programu SES a jejï¿½ postavenï¿½ jako pozorovatele v exekutivnï¿½m orgï¿½nu, kterï¿½ bude odpovednï¿½ za samotnou realizaci (Single Sky Committee);ï¿½ Evropskï¿½ komise musï¿½ zahrnout do aktivit souvisejï¿½cï¿½ch s programem SES vï¿½echny zainteresovanï¿½ subjekty, predevï¿½ï¿½m uï¿½ivatele vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru, poskytovatele letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb, vï¿½robce zabezpecovacï¿½ leteckï¿½ techniky a vojenskï¿½ sloï¿½ky;ï¿½ vytvorenï¿½ efektivnï¿½ho rï¿½mce spoluprï¿½ce mezi civilnï¿½mi a vojenskï¿½mi reprezentanty v oblasti letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb, kterï¿½ zajistï¿½ spravedlivï¿½ vyuï¿½itï¿½ vzduï¿½nï¿½ho prostoru pro potreby civilnï¿½ho i vojenskï¿½ho provozu;ï¿½ poskytovï¿½nï¿½ letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb je sluï¿½bou vykonï¿½vanou ve verejnï¿½m zï¿½jmu, a to bez ohledu na prï¿½vnï¿½ formu a vlastnickou strukturu poskytovatele sluï¿½eb;ï¿½ clenskï¿½ zeme budou v prï¿½pade poruï¿½enï¿½ pravidel programu SES uklï¿½dat pokuty poskytovatelum letovï¿½ch provoznï¿½ch sluï¿½eb a leteckï¿½m dopravcum.V prï¿½pade ostatnï¿½ch kapitol programu SES, kterï¿½ se venujï¿½ predevï¿½ï¿½m problematice lidskï¿½ch zdroju a technickï¿½m otï¿½zkï¿½m, byly dodatky zamereny na oblasti souvisejï¿½cï¿½ s volnï¿½m pohybem pracovnï¿½ch sil. V prï¿½pade rï¿½zenï¿½ letovï¿½ho provozu se jednï¿½ o harmonizaci postupu pri vï¿½beru, vï¿½cviku a licencovï¿½nï¿½ rï¿½dï¿½cï¿½ch letovï¿½ho provozu, vcetne problematiky vzï¿½jemnï¿½ho uznï¿½vanï¿½ licencï¿½ uvnitr EU. Z hlediska plnohodnotnï¿½ realizace programu SES je prï¿½ve nedostatek kvalifikovanï¿½ch rï¿½dï¿½cï¿½ch letovï¿½ho provozu vnï¿½mï¿½n jako zï¿½vaï¿½nï¿½ problï¿½m (v soucasnosti chybï¿½ v zemï¿½ch EU zhruba 15 procent rï¿½dï¿½cï¿½ch letovï¿½ho provozu). Prostrednictvï¿½m systï¿½mu jednotnï¿½ho licencovï¿½nï¿½, zdravotnï¿½ a jazykovï¿½ zpusobilosti lze v rï¿½mci poï¿½adavku programu SES dosï¿½hnout vï¿½znamnï¿½ho snï¿½enï¿½ nedostatku rï¿½dï¿½cï¿½ch a jejich pracovnï¿½ mobility do zemï¿½, kde je nedostatek rï¿½dï¿½cï¿½ch nejaktuï¿½lnejï¿½ï¿½.