Courseworks

Notes on 3 Classical works. Structure, melody, rhythm, instrumentation etc

Originally performed in concert halls and theatres nowadays can be performed in a churchFirst performance was given by a small choir and orchestraPerforming ForcesChoir made of SATBAccompanied by Strings and Continuo (accompanying part, made of cello and harpsichord or organ)Orchestra doubles vocal linesStructure & MelodyStarts with Ritornello (orchestral introduction)No set form, based on 4 motifs1) And the glory the glory of the lord – first sung by alto’s, outlines A Major2) Shall be revealed – first sung by tenors, uses melisma3) and all flesh shall see it together – first sung by altos, descending figure4) for the mouth of the lord hath spoken it first sung by tenors ; bass, solemRhythym Metre and TempoPiece is in 3/4 it is dance likeMaintains allegro until last 2 bars of adagioLots of uses of hemiola’s (music feels 2/4 instead of 3/4)Tonality and HarmonyPiece is in A Major, modulates to E Major, then to B Major (tonic then supertonic)Diatonic harmonyPlagal cadence to end pieceTextureAlternates between Homophonic and Contrapuntal TextureShort monophonic passage in bars 108-109Handel uses a lot of imitationVaries number of parts singing at onceWord SettingMix of syllabic and melismatic word setting4 motifs are repeated a lotMozart – Symphony No. 40 in G minor, 1st movementBasicsComposed in 1788Performed in a large room in a big house or small concert hallTotal symphony has 4 movementsPerformance markingsdiv. (viola part) – players divide into 2 groups1 – 1 person plays this partA 2 – both players play this partSf – AccentTr – TrillStructure & TonalitySonata Form (Exposition, Recapitulation, Development)G MinorExposition 1st subject Falling motif; Played by strings first, in G minor2nd Subject desc chromatic patterns; strings & woodwind, Bb majorDevelopment based on 1st subject, developed starts F #Recapitulation 1st Subject repeated with some variation2nd subject repeated with some variation Coda Perfect Cadences in G MinorRhythym Metre and Tempo4/4 throughout and at molto allegro (very fast)Short rhythmic ideas repeated (anacrusis of double quaver crotchet)Dotted rhythms and syncopation for interestHarmony* Diatonic and functional harmony* Chromatic chords* Circle of 5ths (2nd subject)Texture* Homophonic texture* Counterpoint and imitation,* Octave doublings,* Dialogue between woodwind and stringsDynamicsExposition: 1st sub: quiet, loud transition to quiet 2nd subject which gets louderDevelopment: quiet, loud section, back to quiet _-_Recapitulation: same as exposition _-_-Sudden dynamicsInstrumentationUses chamber orchestra made of: Strings, Woodwind and HornsStrings are always busyWoodwind don’t play much, sustained notesHorns, one in G and another in Bb, maximizes note rangeChopin – Prelude 15 Db Op. 28 – 1839BasicsRaindrop because of repeated pedal note24 preludes, one in each major and minorMost likely performed in home or small concert hallStructureTernary form (ABA)Section A: Db major lyrical melody accompanied by quavers, inner ABA structureSection B: C# minor melody in bass, builds to 2 FF climaxesSection A: Db major short repeat of first A, ends in codaRhythm Metre and TempoIn 4/4 timeSeptuplet and dectuplet in bars 23 and 79Rubato for expression, to give and take time from the piecePlayed in Sostenuto, unhurried mannerMelodyLyrical Ornamented melody decorated with acciaccaturas and turnsMelody moves to bass in section BMade of 4 or 8 bar phrases

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