Personally, I do not agree that the only aim of radical parties was the overthrow the Tsar, even though most of the radical parties at the time were strongly opposed to Tsarist rule, and were actively trying to do so in one way or another. However these radical groups often had several aims, and often were trying to overthrow the entire idea of an autocratic state, rather than just the Tsar himself.Radicalism was born in Russia with the appearance of the Populist movement in 1860.
After the Serfs had been emancipated in 1861, the Populists believed that Russia’s future would be based on the peasants and serfs. To accomplish their goals they believed that the autocratic rule of the Tsar needed to come to an end, to be replaced by a government system based on independent serf communes, a form of local democracy. The Populists hoped that this would cause the old fashioned strong central government to fade away. This means that it was one of the aims of the Populists to remove the Tsar from power, although they were more opposed to the entire Russian system of Autocracy, and it’s removal was to achieve further goals than to simply overthrow the leaders that they did not like, or did not feel were running the country affectively.The plans of the Populists to win the support of the peasants and serfs failed, as they were simply not interested in reform. Many of them were arrested, sparking the formation of a new radical group the ‘People’s Will’ who’s goal was in fact to assassinate leading members of the Tsarist state. You could argue that overthrowing the Tsar was one of their only aims, as they actually managed to assassinate Tsar Alexander II in 1881.
However this did not lead to any reform of governments, as Alexander III simply took over with an even more brutal and repressive rule than his predecessor. This means that the ‘People’s Will’ were so fixated on overthrowing the Tsar that they had not properly considered the consequences it would have on the grand scheme of autocratic rule.The next wave of Radical parties came with the expanding industrial classes in Russian society. Victor Chernov formed the Socialist Revolutionary party attempted to win their support, as he was another believer that the future of Russia was embedded in the workers and the peasants. However this radical part was different in the sense that it contained two contradicting views. On one hand there were the extremists, who attempted to assassinate Tsarist figures such as Plehve, the minister of the interior in 1904 and the Tsar’s uncle, Grand Duke Sergei.
Suggesting they were attempting to overthrow the Tsar and little else. Although, on the one hand the party also contained a group who supported peasant socialism, who disagreed with the methods the other half of the party used to overthrow the Tsar, although arguably both sections of the party were both fixated with removing the Tsar.At the time of the radical parties, and the rule of the Tsar, you could argue that the radical parties could not really have any other aims other than to overthrow the Tsar, as in an autocratic society, opposition to the Tsar was illegal, so until the Tsar had been removed, the radical parties could not put forward any other policies.The first radical revolutionary party to bring widespread change were the Social democratic party.
They also wanted to overthrow the Tsar but wanted to replace the Tsarist autocracy with the ideas of Marxism. However for Marxist ideas to succeed, industrialisation needed to be accelerated to make Russia more suitable for a socialist revolution. This meant that the Social Democratic party did have other aims other than overthrowing the Tsar such as bringing in industrial change and Marxism, although these other aims revolved around making Russia more suitable for a revolution, and therefore as I previously mentioned, every action undertaken by a radical group inevitably was connected to removing Tsarist autocracy, otherwise there would be no need for the formation of radical groups if they were not opposed to Tsar rule. The advancement in the Social Democrat party came with Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, later known as Lenin outlined his plan for the creation of a radical part of political revolutionaries who would lead Russia to social revolution in a pamphlet called ‘What is to be done?’ He too planed to overthrow the Tsar, but thought that revolution could be organised in a scientific way, by studying social and economic factors.Eventually, The pressure applied by the Radical groups and the Social Democratic party, even after it’s split into the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Tsar.
Therefore I think that ultimately such things must have been their ultimate goal, however I also think that it was the hatred of autocratic Tsarist government that forced the parties into Western Marxist ideas. And so I think that the radical parties of Russia were more concerned with changing the ways of government that overthrowing specifically the Tsar.