In this investigation we are going to be looking at how acid rain affects limestone buildings. E.g. York MinsterCauses of Acid RainAcid rain is causes by the pollution released from power stations when they burn fossil fuels. The power station emits clouds of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the air. In the air chemical reactions happen and when it rains, the water drops down into the rivers and earth. This effects trees and buildings, water chemistry and biology etc.Purpose of the InvestigationThe purpose of this investigation is to see if more fossil fuels were burnt how much time would it take to corrode the limestone building with acid rain.PlanI am trying to prove that the more concentrated the Acid Rain is the less time it will take to react.Calcium + Hydrochloric –> Calcium + Carbon Dioxide + WaterCarbonate Acid Chloride (CO2) (H2O)(CACO3) (HCL)Diagram:Equipment List* Boiling/Test tube* Delivery Tube with Bung* Measuring Cylinder* Stop Watch* Plastic Tray* Test Tube Holder* Acid* Safety Goggles* Clamp & BossMethods to be UsedI am going to place 12cm� of hydrochloric acid into a boiling tube with 5g of limestone pieces. Then immediately placing the bung on as it starts to react, and then pressing the stop watch and waiting 15 seconds each time and measuring how much watch is left in the measuring cylinder. I will do this 3 times with every amount of acid, 3 with 12cm� and then with 10cm� Acid and 2cm� of Distilled water, all the way down to 4cm� Acid and 8cm� of Distilled Water.PredictionI think that with less acid added the reaction will be slower and won’t produce as much carbon dioxide and this won’t empty all the water out of the cylinder. I think this because the fact that the smaller amount of Acid and the bigger amount of water. The amount and rate of the reaction collisions will be smaller than with has only acid with no waterFair TestTo make this test fair, I am going to always us 5grams of limestone chips and I will make sure that the measuring cylinder is always full to the brim and to make sure I always record my results every 15 seconds. I will always add 12cm� of liquid (Acid and water) into the boiling tube. I am going to get 3 results for every experiment.Results1st Test – 12cm� of Acid, No Distilled WaterVolume Of Gas (cm�)Time (sec)123Average (cm�)000001555545554309292969345—–60—This shows that the experiment ended very quickly. It only took 30seconds for all the gas to empty out of the measuring cylinder.2nd Test – 10cm� of Acid, 2cm� of Distilled WaterVolume Of Gas (cm�)Time (sec)123Average (cm�)0000015333539353069696969459293919260This shows that the experiment took 45 seconds to empty the measuring cylinder.3rd Test – 8cm� of Acid, 4cm� of Distilled WaterVolume Of Gas (cm�)Time (sec)123Average (cm�)0000015434345443069707170459190929160—-This shows that it took 45 seconds to empty the measuring cylinder.4th Test – 6cm� of Acid, 6cm� of Distilled WaterVolume Of Gas (cm�)Time (sec)123Average (cm�)000001529283029304547494745586363616068737672757582848090798889851058491928912088929491This shows it took 120 seconds to empty the measuring cylinderTest 5 – 4cm� of Acid, 8cm� of Distilled WaterVolume Of Gas (cm�)Time (sec)123Average (cm�)000001518192922302628413145353448396044375244754840544790514357501055449665612055546959This shows that it took 120 seconds to completely empty the measuring cylinder.ConclusionMy results show that the more acid, the quicker the reaction happens and less amount of time it takes. The bigger amount of water the slower reaction and it takes longer to remove, empty the water in the measuring cylinder. This is because the larger the amount of acid, the more particles there is, the particles collide with the limestone. If you added more water than Acid, there are less acid particles to collide the limestone with.EvaluationMy results clearly show that all the things I have mentioned in the conclusion were about right. My results did show that the more acid the faster the reaction. I could see this because looking at my results they show that with less acid and more water the more time it takes for the reaction to endThe results of experiments1 to 5 were all a little different. Experiments 1 2 & 3 all ended after about 45 seconds. But 4 & 5 took 120seconds to end. Experiments 1 and 5’s 3rd test is very different to the 1st two. They show bigger volumes of gas, but the 1st and 2nd are quite close together. This may have occurred because the experiment wasn’t done all at the same time, or was done with less accuracy.I could have made the test more accurate and avoided the anomalous by doing all the experiments at the same time to avoid things changing and try to find a better way of measuring the Acid and Distilled Water more accurately.


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