English has become the world’s first and most widespread internationallanguage and has become the language of the modern era e, tourism and travel,and has become a major study in universities, schools, institutions andscientific research.
English is necessary and practical and we have to learn itregardless of the different nationalities, It is an important asset to theindividual’s intellectual stock. It is a powerful tool for communicationbetween peoples and cultures. It also helps us to respond to the challengesfacing the world in the age of globalization.One of the most important classes that learn the language quickly is the classof children who have difficulty learning English as a writing for non-nativespeakers. In childhood children acquire language faster than adults and olderpeople, Language developed rapidly and markedly, and from there emergedstandards of language and standards, which led to the unification of such asthe science of spelling, which made it easy for everyone to learn and masterthe language.
English has analphabetic writing system based on the Roman alphabet that was brought toAnglo-Saxon England by Christian missionaries and church official in the 600s.So alphabetic writing system are based on the principle of representing, spokensound segments, specially those at the level of consonants and vowels.( Writing systems can be divided into two maintypes: those that represent consonants and vowels (alphabets), and those whichrepresent syllables (syllabaries), though some do both. There are a number ofsubdivisions of each type, and there are different classifications of writingsystems in different sources).
(http://www.omniglot.com/writing/types.htm ) Today Englishis an extremely popular international language in the world. First of all, theconcept of Orthography Is the art of writing words with appropriate lettersaccording to standard use, English spelling rules: Representation of languagesounds by written or printed symbols; also it is a way to represent words byhaving ways to illustrate and write them, for example, Morphology, phonologyand etymology.
In recent timesthe subject of the English writing system has been put forward by someresearchers, so there are two meanings that characterize the writing system,one of them related to the general ideas of writing and the other to specificlanguages. It is a set of visual or tactile tags that are used to representlanguage units in a systematic way that relates to script and orthographicterms. The word orthography refers to rules for writing a language, such asspelling conventions and punctuation. English spelling is the alphabeticalspelling system used by English, a set of rules that explain how speech isrepresented in writing.
English also contains complex water rules due to thecomplicated history of English. So the sounds in English can be written andclear in more than one way. So, there are fewer symbols in The English languagecontains 24 to 27 separate static acoustics, and between 14 and 20 lettervowels. However, the English language uses 26 Latin alphabetic characters. Therefore, therelationship between sound and character is not possible to denote all complexsounds and this means that the characters are multi-tasking. English spelling has many advantages enjoyed by users of English, theadvantages include those who consider English as their first, second or thirdlanguage. So the first feature begins by simplifying spelling in English wherepronunciation will be more useful for English learners.
Example: jealous andenthusiastic words If u is deleted from the words will become pronunciationboth, the result of this example in listening are English learners can predictwords and write clearly. English spelling helps them to study the influence ofreading and writing and also listening. Those who study English for the firsttime will find it easier.
The advantage of learning to read and write inalphabetic writing system in orthography is that once the initial breakthroughin understanding happens, any new word can be worked out. However alphabeticsystem may represent another kind of learning challenge in terms of theirspelling system or orthography.There are also disadvantages of English spelling, people who use the oldEnglish spelling must adapt to the new spelling.
It takes a long time andcreates problems with English users and will create boredom and laziness tostudy again because people are having difficulty for changes. When we talk about language sometimes we mean speech (spoken language)sometimes writing (writtenlanguage). Written and spoken language differs in many ways. However some formsof writing are closer to speech than others, and vice versa. Some of these forms languageare differ in: first, thewriting is usually permanent and cannot be altered after written or written, speech is usuallytransient unless recorded and speakers can correct themselves and change theirwords as they go along. Written text can communicate through time and space aslong as language and writing are still understood, while speech is used forimmediate interactions. Written language tends to be more complex than speechwith many secondary terms, punctuation and written text layout are notequivalent to spoken, but some forms of written language such as instantmessages are closer to spoken language, while spoken language tends to be fullof repetition and sentences incomplete and corrections except for officialspeeches and others such as news reports and scripts for plays. The writers canuse punctuation, titles, layout and colors in their written texts.
These thingsare not available in speech, while speech can use timing, tone and size to addemotional context.Children learn to speak before reading and writing, because speech occursnaturally within the home while learning to read and write is usuallyassociated with the beginning of formal education and this happens after thechild has learned to speak by mother and father. This is normal, so it is oftenassumed that written language is more difficult to learn we see that the speechis less complex than written language, this is not the case that oral languageis quite complex linguistically as a written language but the complexity of adifferent kind, these differences come from very different communicationsituations. one of thebiggest differences between speech and writing are those of official writtentexts and very informal conversations, because they are permanent, writingprovides opportunities for more careful organization and more complex structures.The spoken language is pre-planned but most of the spoken languages arespontaneously and quickly out of unplanned and usually involve a thought bugimmediately, they have repetitions and rephrases have intonation pattern.In addition theconcept of social perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, aswell as, How to Look at Social Phenomena There are many social phenomena suchas: When thinking in a sociological perspective, we see Wright Mills firstcoming to mind describing social imagination as a social icon that relates tothe ability to link individual experiences and community relationships. EmileDurkheim believes that individuals affect our wire as suicide is an effectivepart of community integration.
Sociologists focus on the behavioral patterns ofgroups such as race, sex, age, etc. Social perspectives give greater prominenceto imitation and habit formation, along with developing skills of socialinteractions, work in a complementary way to enable researchers to viewlanguage learning from different angles like cognitive perspective, also theconcept of literacy is based on basic skill and a major measure of populationeducation. Historically, the reading and writing levels of the world’spopulation have risen in the last two centuries.
In 1820 only 12% of the worldspopulation is literate. Today only 17%of the population is proficient.( The broad history of the origins of social-practice perspectivesis well enough known. However, it is useful to look more closely at theparticular grounds upon which the reformers took issue with the predecessors.
How the revisionist critique was formulated in some ways dictated theperspectives that many researchers would adhere to in the ensuing years, evenas the urgent need to answer the autonomous model subsided. In the autonomousmodel of literacy, the decontextualized text is all important, representing notonly the capacity of written language to break free of the limits of time andplace but also the capacity of print to reorient sense-making away from theinteractive settings of speech and toward literal words on their own. Thedecontextualizing powers of text were central to the claims that literacyinduces changes in thinking and social organization) (Brandt, D and Clinton, K. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.
1207/s15548430jlr3403_4) However, the goal is to expand basiceducation and reduce disparities in education. Poor countries have very large sectorsof the illiterate population, for example Niger has a literacy rate of 24 to 15 years is approximately 36.5%. Social cultural perspectives on literacyinclude many different theories that focus on ways in which people are able toeradicate illiteracy, including a strong focus on strengths. However thesetheories have important differences.
Literacy is a social practice that hasbeen heavily influenced by the work of street in Iran and the theoretical workof Barnon and Hamilton at the center for private research in the UK has greatlyinfluenced the development of theories of literacy as a social theory, readingand writing in the real world.