English has become the world’s first and most widespread international
language and has become the language of the modern era e, tourism and travel,
and has become a major study in universities, schools, institutions and
scientific research. English is necessary and practical and we have to learn it
regardless of the different nationalities, It is an important asset to the
individual’s intellectual stock. It is a powerful tool for communication
between peoples and cultures. It also helps us to respond to the challenges
facing the world in the age of globalization.
One of the most important classes that learn the language quickly is the class
of children who have difficulty learning English as a writing for non-native
speakers. In childhood children acquire language faster than adults and older
people, Language developed rapidly and markedly, and from there emerged
standards of language and standards, which led to the unification of such as
the science of spelling, which made it easy for everyone to learn and master
the language.


English has an
alphabetic writing system based on the Roman alphabet that was brought to
Anglo-Saxon England by Christian missionaries and church official in the 600s.
So alphabetic writing system are based on the principle of representing, spoken
sound segments, specially those at the level of consonants and vowels.( Writing systems can be divided into two main
types: those that represent consonants and vowels (alphabets), and those which
represent syllables (syllabaries), though some do both. There are a number of
subdivisions of each type, and there are different classifications of writing
systems in different sources). (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/types.htm ) Today English
is an extremely popular international language in the world. First of all, the
concept of Orthography Is the art of writing words with appropriate letters
according to standard use, English spelling rules: Representation of language
sounds by written or printed symbols; also it is a way to represent words by
having ways to illustrate and write them, for example, Morphology, phonology
and etymology. In recent times
the subject of the English writing system has been put forward by some
researchers, so there are two meanings that characterize the writing system,
one of them related to the general ideas of writing and the other to specific
languages. It is a set of visual or tactile tags that are used to represent
language units in a systematic way that relates to script and orthographic
terms. The word orthography refers to rules for writing a language, such as
spelling conventions and punctuation. English spelling is the alphabetical
spelling system used by English, a set of rules that explain how speech is
represented in writing. English also contains complex water rules due to the
complicated history of English. So the sounds in English can be written and
clear in more than one way. So, there are fewer symbols in The English language
contains 24 to 27 separate static acoustics, and between 14 and 20 letter
vowels. However, the English language uses 26 Latin alphabetic characters. Therefore, the
relationship between sound and character is not possible to denote all complex
sounds and this means that the characters are multi-tasking.
English spelling has many advantages enjoyed by users of English, the
advantages include those who consider English as their first, second or third
language. So the first feature begins by simplifying spelling in English where
pronunciation will be more useful for English learners. Example: jealous and
enthusiastic words If u is deleted from the words will become pronunciation
both, the result of this example in listening are English learners can predict
words and write clearly. English spelling helps them to study the influence of
reading and writing and also listening. Those who study English for the first
time will find it easier. The advantage of learning to read and write in
alphabetic writing system in orthography is that once the initial breakthrough
in understanding happens, any new word can be worked out. However alphabetic
system may represent another kind of learning challenge in terms of their
spelling system or orthography.
There are also disadvantages of English spelling, people who use the old
English spelling must adapt to the new spelling. It takes a long time and
creates problems with English users and will create boredom and laziness to
study again because people are having difficulty for changes.   
When we talk about language sometimes we mean speech (spoken language)
sometimes writing (written
language). Written and spoken language differs in many ways. However some forms
of writing are closer to speech than others, and vice versa. Some of these forms language
are differ in: first, the
writing is usually permanent and cannot be altered after written or written, speech is usually
transient unless recorded and speakers can correct themselves and change their
words as they go along. Written text can communicate through time and space as
long as language and writing are still understood, while speech is used for
immediate interactions. Written language tends to be more complex than speech
with many secondary terms, punctuation and written text layout are not
equivalent to spoken, but some forms of written language such as instant
messages are closer to spoken language, while spoken language tends to be full
of repetition and sentences incomplete and corrections except for official
speeches and others such as news reports and scripts for plays. The writers can
use punctuation, titles, layout and colors in their written texts. These things
are not available in speech, while speech can use timing, tone and size to add
emotional context.
Children learn to speak before reading and writing, because speech occurs
naturally within the home while learning to read and write is usually
associated with the beginning of formal education and this happens after the
child has learned to speak by mother and father. This is normal, so it is often
assumed that written language is more difficult to learn we see that the speech
is less complex than written language, this is not the case that oral language
is quite complex linguistically as a written language but the complexity of a
different kind, these differences come from very different communication
situations. one of the
biggest differences between speech and writing are those of official written
texts and very informal conversations, because they are permanent, writing
provides opportunities for more careful organization and more complex structures.
The spoken language is pre-planned but most of the spoken languages are
spontaneously and quickly out of unplanned and usually involve a thought bug
immediately, they have repetitions and rephrases have intonation pattern.

In addition the
concept of social perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, as
well as, How to Look at Social Phenomena There are many social phenomena such
as: When thinking in a sociological perspective, we see Wright Mills first
coming to mind describing social imagination as a social icon that relates to
the ability to link individual experiences and community relationships. Emile
Durkheim believes that individuals affect our wire as suicide is an effective
part of community integration. Sociologists focus on the behavioral patterns of
groups such as race, sex, age, etc. Social perspectives give greater prominence
to imitation and habit formation, along with developing skills of social
interactions, work in a complementary way to enable researchers to view
language learning from different angles like cognitive perspective, also the
concept of literacy is based on basic skill and a major measure of population
education. Historically, the reading and writing levels of the world’s
population have risen in the last two centuries. In 1820 only 12% of the worlds
population is literate. Today  only 17%
of the population is proficient.( The broad history of the origins of social-practice perspectives
is well enough known. However, it is useful to look more closely at the
particular grounds upon which the reformers took issue with the predecessors.
How the revisionist critique was formulated in some ways dictated the
perspectives that many researchers would adhere to in the ensuing years, even
as the urgent need to answer the autonomous model subsided. In the autonomous
model of literacy, the decontextualized text is all important, representing not
only the capacity of written language to break free of the limits of time and
place but also the capacity of print to reorient sense-making away from the
interactive settings of speech and toward literal words on their own. The
decontextualizing powers of text were central to the claims that literacy
induces changes in thinking and social organization)
(Brandt, D and Clinton, K. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1207/s15548430jlr3403_4)
 However, the goal is to expand basic
education and reduce disparities in education. Poor countries have very large sectors
of the illiterate population, for example Niger has a literacy rate of  24 to 15 years is approximately 36.5%. Social cultural perspectives on literacy
include many different theories that focus on ways in which people are able to
eradicate illiteracy, including a strong focus on strengths. However these
theories have important differences. Literacy is a social practice that has
been heavily influenced by the work of street in Iran and the theoretical work
of Barnon and Hamilton at the center for private research in the UK has greatly
influenced the development of theories of literacy as a social theory, reading
and writing in the real world.     


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