Energystorage and technology comparsions  IbrahimAlmadaniECGR 4090:unitality application of power electronicsUniversityof North Carolina at Charlotte Departmentof electrical and computer engineering NC,[email protected]   Abstract—This document is discussinga topic in Energy storage systems and technology. The paper will includeintroduction of the energy storage and what does mean for electrical engineer.

It also contains literature review, description of technology, practicalimplementation of technology, and conclusion. Keywords—Technology; Energy storage; Electrical engineering; Uitility;Systems. Electrochemical, Electromechanical.                                                                                                I.     IntroductionThe paper is going to discuss thefundamental energy storage technology used in electrical engineering. Tounderstand the role of the energy storage. Knowledge about electricity, and thephysics of it is necessary to know how the storage systems works. The firstcharacteristic state of electricity is that the consumption and generationhappen at the same time, but the generation has different place of production.

These two statements have played as one of the essential rules of why theenergy storage is needed, and a lot of researches were going through how we cansave energy. One of the benefits of the energy storage system it can save thecost of the generation, when the demand is at its peak.  Without storing the energy all the power thatis generated will be consumed, but when saving the energy can help when thereis a shortage, or critical demand from the costumer’s side.

Also, the energystorage has helped the stability of the electricity that is produced when theconsumption and generation are far apart. When there is a congestion in thepower grid the energy storage system will help to reduce the congestion.          Aside from understanding the importantpart of essential energy storage, it is additionally fundamental to considerthe sorts and developing requirements for vitality given the steady changes inthe world of technology. Later, vitality creation and utilization are settledtowards sustainable power sources by lessening the more poisonous petroleumfuels. The primary objective towards this change is to decrease the productionof carbon dioxide as a rule when burning these fossils. The point ought to beto give this power to individuals both on and off-grid places. The utilizationof Smart Grid will end up plainly vital for this situation. viewed from threedimensions, including that of utility, consumers, and the producers ofrenewable energy.

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In all the situations, time shifting, cost savings, and powerare all critical                                                                                         II.    Literature ReviewOn the literature review of this paper, focus will be placed on thetypes and features of energy storage systems. It will involve classification ofthe Energy storage as well as discussion of each of these parts. Thetechnologies are broadly categorized into three, including mechanical,electrochemical, and chemical energy storage systems. Of the three, pumpedhydro storage have existed the longest since the 1890s. On the other hand,(CAES) developed in the nineteenth century and has been widely used in variousindustrial applications even the mobile ones.

Its main advantage is its largecapacity to store with the shortcomings being inefficiency in low round trip aswell as limitations resulting from geographical location.  Figure1: CAES The second group is the electrochemical storage system that mainlyadopts electrical storage through different types of batteries. The common onesinclude secondary batteries and the flow batteries. The common models of thesesystems of storage have been in existence for long that they have practicallymatured for use. Some common examples include lead acid and Li-ion among othersodium component batteries. The difference between flow batteries and theordinary ones is that in the latter, the charge and discharge of energy occursin the electrodes in active masses. While flow batteries can be recharged, oneof the energies deposited in the electro active rods can melt in the liquidelectrolytes.

The two major examples of flow batteries include redox flow andhybrid flow batteries. The differences between these two types of flowbatteries is where the dissolutions and active pumping of active metal takeplace in the process.    Figure2: Secondary battery.  Figure3: Flow batteries      The last type energy systemis the chemical energy storage.

It mainly focuses on the storage of two maincomponents, including hydrogen and synthetic natural gas (SNG). It categorizesthe two as secondary energy carriers since the two can have massive impacts inlarge quantity storage of electrical energy. The main function of such energystorage systems is to utilize the excess hydrogen in the production of hydrogenthrough water electrolysis. After production, hydrogen can be used through twoways, including in its pure form or as SNG. Even though the efficiency of suchstorage methods is lower than those of storage systems like pumped hydrostorage, it is the only method that permits the storage of energy in largequantities.

Another advantage of utilizing hydrogen and synthetic natural gasis that being general carriers, they provide options for use in varioussectors, including transport and chemical industry.      Apart from the broadclassification of the energy systems, electrical storage systems are alsoimportant. They commonly used systems are double layers capacitor andsuperconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). The thermal storage systems arealso important facets of energy storage and their storages are divided intostorages of sensible heat, latent heat, thermo-chemical as well as absorptionstorage. Developing these energy systems even further requires people tounderstand the standards for these technologies such as the basic features of energystorage tools, the communication that occur between these components, therequirements for interconnection, safety, testing, and the guides forimplementation. Understanding these issues are also important in makingtechnical comparisons among these energy storage technologies.

      Figure4: Double layer capacitor      Figure 5: superconducting magnetic energystorage                                                                              III.   Description of Technology In this section, it is going to be about the emerging of technologiesin the energy storage market. In recent times, the applications of theconventional electric utilities will be analyzed as well as their uses. Thereason for the adoption of these utilities is to bring balance between the timeshift and emergency supply and power quality. One of the common utility useshas seen the adoption of conventional means of generating power as well as gridoperation services.

The adoption of this utility had led to a fall in the totalcosts of generation due to its pumped hydroelectricity. Such a system storeselectricity during the off-peak periods and offers power during the peakperiods. They also maintain the quality, frequency, and voltage through eitherthe supply or absorption of power from or into the systems when needed. Thepeak shifts have also helped in the mitigation of network congestion. Theisolated networks have not been left behind because these utilities ensure thatthey have stable power. In emergency situations, these utilities have provedtheir efficiency in providing power.                 In the past, pumpedhydro storage were used in reducing the costs of generating power using timeshifts as well as monitoring of the grid frequency. Most of nations today havedeveloped their own pumped hydro storage facilities.

  Together they constitute the biggestpercentage of the total storage volume in the world. In recent times, thesefacilities are moving away from the conventional installation to moreinnovative variable-speed-control pumped hydro storage. The latter does thefunction of the frequency controller by controlling the motor’s speed ofrotation.

               The use ofcompressed air energy storage (CAES) has become prominent even though only twosuch power plants exist in the whole world. Due to the production of moreenergy even during the peak periods has also increased the need for theadoption of this kind of technology. Several CAES plants are under constructionwith the hope that they will provide useful solutions in electricity storage.

Research has shown that reducing the size of these plants can lead to higherefficiencies.   Figure6: The compressed air energy storage system                The recent developments in utilities have also enabledefficient use of the power network. A good example is the Li-ion battery thatoffers an effective use of the power network. The use such batteries in the AESEnergy Storage has aided in the management of variations in the systemoperator. Such systems have also been important because they have helped in thedelivery of frequency regulations in a less expensive but more responsive way.Selling to the electric grid directly will also help such companies to obtaintheir full output capacity.                The supply ofemergency power has been an issue of concern for a long time. The vitalfacilities like the power stations and the telecommunication ones must haveconstant power because they become important in case of an interruption.

Batteries that support the DC sources have helped in this function. In the pastlead-acid batteries were used. Finally, the use of these utilities has alsohelped in dealing with the problems relating to off-grid systems. Supplyingelectricity to a power grid like an island often requires the suppliers to havegenerators that can work during disruptions. Other renewable sources of energycan also help in such situations.

Apart from utility use, consumer use thatensures power supply for large consumers happens uninterrupted has alsoemerged.        The storage of wind turbines energy is aconcern when thinking about constructing them. GE turbines technology containsa battery integrated to their turbines. Previously the battery system was builtwith the turbine system. The GE turbines have helped to reduce the cost of theexpensive batteries insulations.

The way they built the battery inside theirdesign and how to estimate the right one, they do it by production, so eachplace on the land have different wind speed and different level of consumption,so based on those two fact the batteries will be integrated inside the windturbines.     Figure 7: GE wind turbine                                                          IV.   Practical Implementation of Technology While discussing the markets for energy storage systems, focusingon the new trends in applications is also important. These new technologieshave been used in the generation of renewable energy as well as applied in,smart grid and microgrid, smart house, and electric vehicles. The generation ofrenewable energy has been among the new applications believed to guide energystorage into the new era. The solution of the global environmental problemsalso depends on the adoption of these solar and wind energies.

It implies thatenergy supply in the future will depend on fluctuating sources of renewableenergy. It means that production of electricity will be determined by theprevailing weather conditions. Only through this means would the surplus anddeficit in the production and consumption of energy balance. The main role ofenergy storage is to match the time-shifts.Also, from time-shifting to provide energy storage solutions,other means can also be applied match the forces of demand and supply.

Thereinforcement of the power grids can also help on this front by ensuring thatthe underproductions in one place are compensated for by the overproduction in other areas. Othertechniques that can be used include the generation of the renewable energy.Solar cell technology is becoming common around the renewable energybecause the efficiency of it has increase the last decades.

Thin film, siliconbased, quantum dots, and germanium solar cells, all these different types ofsolar cells is being the main focus for energy production and storageespecially all the researches in Australia for example they got the efficiencyto go up to 42 percent without concentrated sun light.       In the modern world, thegeneration as well as availability of the renewable energy sources have beendeclining. One of the creative ways through which such energy can be generatedis through nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology to power objects has beena dream scientists and engineers have had for a while. Today, it is close tobecoming a reality.

They noted that when the nanoparticles of zinc oxide mixedwith aluminum and the two are heated, the zinc oxide will conduct electricity.On the other hand, aluminum reduces the ability of the molecules to transferheat. While this is just a test, the technology can be applied in real-lifesituations to help in the generation of renewable energy.          Engineers havedeveloped prototypes that they believe have the potential for more sustainabletechnology due to the nanotechnology that enhances transfer of energy. Researchdone at the London Center for Nanotechnology managed to develop a power sourcefor a cellphone that depends on solar cells from Organic Light Emitting Diodes(OLED) to increase the overall battery life. In such a situation, energy wouldeven be obtained wasted light that can be reabsorbed through the photovoltaiccells embedded on the OLED screen. While it is still some way from producingenergy on a large scale, it could change the way individuals power technologyin the future.

   Figure 8: Cross section of Organic LightEmitting Diodes                Anothertechnique that can be adopted to ensure the production of renewable energy isthrough harnessing the ocean waves. Studies have shown that the power of thesea can be harnessed by carefully designing a buoy to help in this situation.The process is quite simple becauseit only requires copper wires and a magnet. As the waves move these materialsup and down, electric current gets induced in the wire. The idea was put intouse because of the presence of the kinetic energy in these ocean waves. The ideaworked quite well because the energy that was produced when the idea was firstplaced into test managed to provide enough electricity to power two houses. Itmeans that when further tested and correct applications put into use then thetrajectory of this work would be a cause for optimism. With many governmentsseeing this technology as a possibility, they have funded the clean-energyfirms to undertake more research on this.

  Figure9: Buoy     Figure10: Wave energy   IIV. Conclusion In the above discussion, the focus on the energy storage system has openednumerous elements regarding the topic. The key to understanding the principlesbehind electricity storage is focusing on the features of electricity. Throughthis, one understands why it is important to store energy. While storing energyis an important element in the supply of electricity, it is worth noting thatthe method used to store energy is also important. Companies must consider theamount of energy they have and the kind supply technologies they will also use.With the challenges involved in the nonrenewable energy sources, it is hightime companies and households focused on the production of renewable energy toreduce the environmental problems as well as develop many solutions on this front.   References “Pumped Hydroelectric Storage | Energy StorageAssociation”.

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