storage and technology comparsions



ECGR 4090:
unitality application of power electronics

of North Carolina at Charlotte

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of electrical and computer engineering


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Abstract—This document is discussing
a topic in Energy storage systems and technology. The paper will include
introduction of the energy storage and what does mean for electrical engineer.
It also contains literature review, description of technology, practical
implementation of technology, and conclusion.

Keywords—Technology; Energy storage; Electrical engineering; Uitility;
Systems. Electrochemical, Electromechanical.

I.     Introduction

The paper is going to discuss the
fundamental energy storage technology used in electrical engineering. To
understand the role of the energy storage. Knowledge about electricity, and the
physics of it is necessary to know how the storage systems works. The first
characteristic state of electricity is that the consumption and generation
happen at the same time, but the generation has different place of production.
These two statements have played as one of the essential rules of why the
energy storage is needed, and a lot of researches were going through how we can
save energy. One of the benefits of the energy storage system it can save the
cost of the generation, when the demand is at its peak.  Without storing the energy all the power that
is generated will be consumed, but when saving the energy can help when there
is a shortage, or critical demand from the costumer’s side. Also, the energy
storage has helped the stability of the electricity that is produced when the
consumption and generation are far apart. When there is a congestion in the
power grid the energy storage system will help to reduce the congestion.

         Aside from understanding the important
part of essential energy storage, it is additionally fundamental to consider
the sorts and developing requirements for vitality given the steady changes in
the world of technology. Later, vitality creation and utilization are settled
towards sustainable power sources by lessening the more poisonous petroleum
fuels. The primary objective towards this change is to decrease the production
of carbon dioxide as a rule when burning these fossils. The point ought to be
to give this power to individuals both on and off-grid places. The utilization
of Smart Grid will end up plainly vital for this situation. viewed from three
dimensions, including that of utility, consumers, and the producers of
renewable energy. In all the situations, time shifting, cost savings, and power
are all critical


II.    Literature Review

On the literature review of this paper, focus will be placed on the
types and features of energy storage systems. It will involve classification of
the Energy storage as well as discussion of each of these parts. The
technologies are broadly categorized into three, including mechanical,
electrochemical, and chemical energy storage systems. Of the three, pumped
hydro storage have existed the longest since the 1890s. On the other hand,
(CAES) developed in the nineteenth century and has been widely used in various
industrial applications even the mobile ones. Its main advantage is its large
capacity to store with the shortcomings being inefficiency in low round trip as
well as limitations resulting from geographical location.




The second group is the electrochemical storage system that mainly
adopts electrical storage through different types of batteries. The common ones
include secondary batteries and the flow batteries. The common models of these
systems of storage have been in existence for long that they have practically
matured for use. Some common examples include lead acid and Li-ion among other
sodium component batteries. The difference between flow batteries and the
ordinary ones is that in the latter, the charge and discharge of energy occurs
in the electrodes in active masses. While flow batteries can be recharged, one
of the energies deposited in the electro active rods can melt in the liquid
electrolytes. The two major examples of flow batteries include redox flow and
hybrid flow batteries. The differences between these two types of flow
batteries is where the dissolutions and active pumping of active metal take
place in the process.



2: Secondary battery.


3: Flow batteries


    The last type energy system
is the chemical energy storage. It mainly focuses on the storage of two main
components, including hydrogen and synthetic natural gas (SNG). It categorizes
the two as secondary energy carriers since the two can have massive impacts in
large quantity storage of electrical energy. The main function of such energy
storage systems is to utilize the excess hydrogen in the production of hydrogen
through water electrolysis. After production, hydrogen can be used through two
ways, including in its pure form or as SNG. Even though the efficiency of such
storage methods is lower than those of storage systems like pumped hydro
storage, it is the only method that permits the storage of energy in large
quantities. Another advantage of utilizing hydrogen and synthetic natural gas
is that being general carriers, they provide options for use in various
sectors, including transport and chemical industry.

     Apart from the broad
classification of the energy systems, electrical storage systems are also
important. They commonly used systems are double layers capacitor and
superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). The thermal storage systems are
also important facets of energy storage and their storages are divided into
storages of sensible heat, latent heat, thermo-chemical as well as absorption
storage. Developing these energy systems even further requires people to
understand the standards for these technologies such as the basic features of energy
storage tools, the communication that occur between these components, the
requirements for interconnection, safety, testing, and the guides for
implementation. Understanding these issues are also important in making
technical comparisons among these energy storage technologies.






4: Double layer capacitor



   Figure 5: superconducting magnetic energy


III.   Description of Technology


In this section, it is going to be about the emerging of technologies
in the energy storage market. In recent times, the applications of the
conventional electric utilities will be analyzed as well as their uses. The
reason for the adoption of these utilities is to bring balance between the time
shift and emergency supply and power quality. One of the common utility uses
has seen the adoption of conventional means of generating power as well as grid
operation services. The adoption of this utility had led to a fall in the total
costs of generation due to its pumped hydroelectricity. Such a system stores
electricity during the off-peak periods and offers power during the peak
periods. They also maintain the quality, frequency, and voltage through either
the supply or absorption of power from or into the systems when needed. The
peak shifts have also helped in the mitigation of network congestion. The
isolated networks have not been left behind because these utilities ensure that
they have stable power. In emergency situations, these utilities have proved
their efficiency in providing power.    

            In the past, pumped
hydro storage were used in reducing the costs of generating power using time
shifts as well as monitoring of the grid frequency. Most of nations today have
developed their own pumped hydro storage facilities.  Together they constitute the biggest
percentage of the total storage volume in the world. In recent times, these
facilities are moving away from the conventional installation to more
innovative variable-speed-control pumped hydro storage. The latter does the
function of the frequency controller by controlling the motor’s speed of

               The use of
compressed air energy storage (CAES) has become prominent even though only two
such power plants exist in the whole world. Due to the production of more
energy even during the peak periods has also increased the need for the
adoption of this kind of technology. Several CAES plants are under construction
with the hope that they will provide useful solutions in electricity storage.
Research has shown that reducing the size of these plants can lead to higher


6: The compressed air energy storage system


               The recent developments in utilities have also enabled
efficient use of the power network. A good example is the Li-ion battery that
offers an effective use of the power network. The use such batteries in the AES
Energy Storage has aided in the management of variations in the system
operator. Such systems have also been important because they have helped in the
delivery of frequency regulations in a less expensive but more responsive way.
Selling to the electric grid directly will also help such companies to obtain
their full output capacity.

               The supply of
emergency power has been an issue of concern for a long time. The vital
facilities like the power stations and the telecommunication ones must have
constant power because they become important in case of an interruption.
Batteries that support the DC sources have helped in this function. In the past
lead-acid batteries were used. Finally, the use of these utilities has also
helped in dealing with the problems relating to off-grid systems. Supplying
electricity to a power grid like an island often requires the suppliers to have
generators that can work during disruptions. Other renewable sources of energy
can also help in such situations. Apart from utility use, consumer use that
ensures power supply for large consumers happens uninterrupted has also

      The storage of wind turbines energy is a
concern when thinking about constructing them. GE turbines technology contains
a battery integrated to their turbines. Previously the battery system was built
with the turbine system. The GE turbines have helped to reduce the cost of the
expensive batteries insulations. The way they built the battery inside their
design and how to estimate the right one, they do it by production, so each
place on the land have different wind speed and different level of consumption,
so based on those two fact the batteries will be integrated inside the wind


Figure 7: GE wind turbine

IV.   Practical Implementation of Technology


While discussing the markets for energy storage systems, focusing
on the new trends in applications is also important. These new technologies
have been used in the generation of renewable energy as well as applied in,
smart grid and microgrid, smart house, and electric vehicles. The generation of
renewable energy has been among the new applications believed to guide energy
storage into the new era. The solution of the global environmental problems
also depends on the adoption of these solar and wind energies. It implies that
energy supply in the future will depend on fluctuating sources of renewable
energy. It means that production of electricity will be determined by the
prevailing weather conditions. Only through this means would the surplus and
deficit in the production and consumption of energy balance. The main role of
energy storage is to match the time-shifts.

Also, from time-shifting to provide energy storage solutions,
other means can also be applied match the forces of demand and supply. The
reinforcement of the power grids can also help on this front by ensuring that
the underproductions in one place are compensated for by the overproduction in other areas. Other
techniques that can be used include the generation of the renewable energy.

Solar cell technology is becoming common around the renewable energy
because the efficiency of it has increase the last decades. Thin film, silicon
based, quantum dots, and germanium solar cells, all these different types of
solar cells is being the main focus for energy production and storage
especially all the researches in Australia for example they got the efficiency
to go up to 42 percent without concentrated sun light.

       In the modern world, the
generation as well as availability of the renewable energy sources have been
declining. One of the creative ways through which such energy can be generated
is through nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology to power objects has been
a dream scientists and engineers have had for a while. Today, it is close to
becoming a reality. They noted that when the nanoparticles of zinc oxide mixed
with aluminum and the two are heated, the zinc oxide will conduct electricity.
On the other hand, aluminum reduces the ability of the molecules to transfer
heat. While this is just a test, the technology can be applied in real-life
situations to help in the generation of renewable energy.

         Engineers have
developed prototypes that they believe have the potential for more sustainable
technology due to the nanotechnology that enhances transfer of energy. Research
done at the London Center for Nanotechnology managed to develop a power source
for a cellphone that depends on solar cells from Organic Light Emitting Diodes
(OLED) to increase the overall battery life. In such a situation, energy would
even be obtained wasted light that can be reabsorbed through the photovoltaic
cells embedded on the OLED screen. While it is still some way from producing
energy on a large scale, it could change the way individuals power technology
in the future.



Figure 8: Cross section of Organic Light
Emitting Diodes


technique that can be adopted to ensure the production of renewable energy is
through harnessing the ocean waves. Studies have shown that the power of the
sea can be harnessed by carefully designing a buoy to help in this situation.
The process is quite simple because
it only requires copper wires and a magnet. As the waves move these materials
up and down, electric current gets induced in the wire. The idea was put into
use because of the presence of the kinetic energy in these ocean waves. The idea
worked quite well because the energy that was produced when the idea was first
placed into test managed to provide enough electricity to power two houses. It
means that when further tested and correct applications put into use then the
trajectory of this work would be a cause for optimism. With many governments
seeing this technology as a possibility, they have funded the clean-energy
firms to undertake more research on this.


9: Buoy




10: Wave energy



IIV. Conclusion


In the above discussion, the focus on the energy storage system has opened
numerous elements regarding the topic. The key to understanding the principles
behind electricity storage is focusing on the features of electricity. Through
this, one understands why it is important to store energy. While storing energy
is an important element in the supply of electricity, it is worth noting that
the method used to store energy is also important. Companies must consider the
amount of energy they have and the kind supply technologies they will also use.
With the challenges involved in the nonrenewable energy sources, it is high
time companies and households focused on the production of renewable energy to
reduce the environmental problems as well as develop many solutions on this front.






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