Energy crisis is the one of most vital problem inthe world, especially in India. Among the factors that contribute to this isthe rapid growth in population.

From last decade human has a hope thatrenewable energy can accomplish the requirement of energy. Renewable energy isproduced from natural resources such as the wind, sun, biomass and water. It isample and is a natural form of resource. The use of renewable resources ofenergy is growing rapidly because of increasing the price of fossil fuels, theeffect of fossil-fuel on the environment and human health. Energy produced by Photovoltaic technology couldoffer a promising and environment-clean alternative to fossil-fuel-based energygeneration.

Photovoltaic technology uses solar cells; made of semiconductors,convert directly solar irradiance into electricity Jacobson.  India has high solar insolation, an ideal conditionfor producing solar energy. Government of India are promoting their own solarbased power generation by introducing specific policies and funding forincreasing the energy generation capacity, including technology enhancementthat favoritisms generation of energy by solar. Energy produced by Photovoltaictechnology in India has been growing at rate of 113% and now dropped to aroundRs 4.34 per Kwh, which is around 18% lower than the average price forelectricity generated by coal-fixed plants. Indian government has plan for togenerate more than 100 gigawatts of solar energy by 2022.  Despite all these benefits, the utmost drawback ofphotovoltaic systems is limited efficiency, which ranges between 12% and 20% razy.

Generally rating of the PV modules is based on the indoor lab condition: Solarspectrum of AM 1.5, solar insolation of 1000 W/m2 and module ambienttemperature at 25C. However, actual working conditions are different from indoorlab conditions when PV module exposed. Temperature and solar irradiance are twomain parameters, which play an important role to influence the generation ofoutput power of solar module.

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In addition to these parameters, amount of energyyield from PV modules is depends on type of PV modules, type of front surfaceof PV modules and electrical characteristics of PV modules. The output power of PV module is also significantly influencedby environmental factors such as solar radiation, ambient temperature, humidity,rainfall, seasonal change, dust, wind speed and direction. Apart fromenvironmental factors, installation factors such as tilt angle, orientation,altitude, seasonal tilt adjustment and location of installation play the vitalrole to affect the performance the PV module.

 Themajor factor degrading the production of PV module is dust deposition on PVsurface that causes a huge energy losses energy during long term utilization. Accumulationof dust for longer period damages the layer of panel resulting into permanentless output & decreasing life span. Dust deposition on the surface of thesolar PV system manly depends upon the two factors; site location and localenvironment conditions.

 Dustis defined as the tiny solid elements less than 500m in diameter. Birddroppings, plant products, pollens, sand, hair, and microfibers are also referringas dust when deposited on surface of the PV module. Dust deposition depend onthe dust properties such as chemical properties, size, shape, weight and differentenvironmental conditions such as wind speed , wind direction, humidity, ambienttemperature, dust storms, pollution.

Surrounding activities such as human actions,vehicle movement and volcanic discharges can also increase the dust depositionmani. Researchconducted by 5-8-13 presented that there are significant losses on the energyyield from the PV modules due to dust deposition. A research conducted by 10 on theeffect of dust deposition for two 1 MWp rated PV plants which comprises of 60units crystalline modules on each plants, revealed that the losses in outputpower are from 1.1-6.

9%. These losses will give high impact to the income ofthe plant.   The output power loss of the modules can beavoided, if modules are clean periodically. We also study here about thedifferent method of cleaning of surface of PV module. Several of cleaningmethods & techniques have been developed to mitigating the effect of dustdeposition.

These methods & techniques are costly depending on the type ofcleaning system. These include natural, manual, automatic cleaning methods.  Thenatural effect of cleaning by rain or snow has been observed in numerousstudies throughout the world. An area with low dust deposition and periodicprecipitation, dust is not the key problem; the rain water cleans the dirty PV modulewhich recovers their normal performance zorrilla. If the intensity of rainand duration is less, rain can enhance the dust deposition problem.  In manual cleaning technique,Manpower is required to clean of surface of PV module manually with the help ofmopp or any wipers with suitable support structures. In large PV plants, themajor problems are the consumption of water, especially in those areas withwater shortage and power consumed by the pumping system29.  The process is found to be very tedious and challengingas the solar power plants consists of numbers of panels installed at a heightof 8 to 15 feet or more from the ground.

The time required and safety of theperson and panel is in threat. Mazumder1studied the effect of electrodynamics removal of dust from solar panels. Hefound that when the electrodes are activated by phased voltage, the dustparticles on the surface of the film become electro-statically charged and theymay be removed by the alternating electric field, within 2 min. more than 90%of dust deposition is removed. Bock,sims designed a self-cleaning solar panels with integrated electro-dynamicscreens. They found that higher the voltage, the enhanced the dust removing andvise-versa. This type of cleaning method has some limitations such as it cannotremove the muddy or sticky particles because it does not contain any liquid andit has high initial and operation costs. Areviewed paper by{mani is discussing the effect of dust on PV moduleperformance during two time phases, 1940-1990 and 1990-2010.

Main focus of thisstudy is only on the effect of environmental factors on the performance of PVmodule without finding the effective techniques of reducing their impact. Mekhilefet al.  studied the effects of dustdeposition, wind speed, humidity surrounding the PV module.

They reported thateach factor influences the other and they should be considered simultaneously.Jamil et al reviewed  the types of soilingand discussed the comparison of present mitigation methods of soiling. Syed etal reviewed the effect of environment condition and dust deposition on theperformance of PV module. They concluded that the most effective dust- removalmethod depends on climate conditions at the site of interest.

There is no fixedrecommended frequency of module cleaning as this strongly depends on thefrequency of local dust storms. The major emphasis ofthis review is to study the loss in the output power of PV module due to thedust deposition which is the function of environmental factors such astemperature, wind speed , wind direction, humidity, rainfall, solarirradiation, dust properties and  installation factor such as orientation, tiltangle, altitude, seasonal tiltadjustment and location of installation. The deposition of duston photovoltaic modules is of importance as parameter for economic analysis andlife cycle assessments to evaluate this kind of technology for generation ofelectricity. It also focuses on the some of the past, current and promisingfuture approaches for mitigating method of dust deposition on the PV module.

This paper accumulates detail information on the dust deposition, properties, andfactors affecting the dust deposition and mitigation techniques.