Emotion regulation refers
to the activities by individual to manage his/her emotions regarding to the
goals (Eisenberg, Spinrad, & Smith, 2004; Gross, 1998b). According
to Gross (2001) theory, regulation strategies starts with situation selection
and continues with situation alteration and attentional deployment. In these phases
people can choose and change their environments in order to regulate their
emotion inducing events and then pay attention to special parts of the events. Researchers
believe that these strategies are not applicable and realistic in the
organizations, because people mostly have limitation to choose or change their
settings in the organizations. Therefore, controlling internal process are more
adaptive than the external ones in the organizations (Cropanzano, et al, 2000).
The fourth stage is cognitive change which is the last antecedent-focused
strategy of emotion regulation. In this stage, people select the possible
meanings to the events.

Reappraisal, as an adaptive cognitive change strategy,
help people to change the meaning as well as emotional response to that event (Gross,
2002). The final step, response modulation, works when an emotion expression occurred.
Suppression is a forms of emotion regulation which enact in this stage. Suppression
refers to attempts to decline or hide the emotion (e.g., anger) when it happens
(Gross, 2002). Another way for regulating the emotions is striving to
experience a special emotion (i.e. emotional preferences) in the particular
context (Kim, Ford, Mauss & Tamir, 2015). Kim et al. (2015) believe that
emotional preferences are different with emotional experiences due to the fact
that emotional preferences refer to the desired end-states, but emotional
experiences reflect current conditions. Regarding to this fact, emotional preferences
could form emotional experiences and their subsequent behaviours. For instance,
Tamir et al. (2014) demonstrated that gamblers sometimes try to increase their anger,
because it causes them to take more risks. Additional studies show that anger
low intensity anger has positive effects on individuals’ behaviours when they
need to confront another and therefore it could be pleasant in certain
situations (Glomb,
2002; Frijda, 1986; Lerner & Tiedens, 2006; Keltner & Gross, 1999;
20). These
findings are consistent with instrumental approach rather than hedonic,
addressing that psychologically healthier individuals prefer unpleasant
emotions as much as pleasant ones depends on the goals that they currently

According to this instrumental model, preferring anger could
promote performance,
especially when an employee is preparing to a competition or a
confrontational task
(e.g., Tamir & Ford, 2012a). In the other words, in some situations, people
prefer to be angry for making changes to better clarify their needs and reach intrapersonal
goals (Keltner & Gross, 1999). Interestingly, researches have shown that
anger as a negative emotion does not always cause lack of happiness or
psychologically unhealthy issues. For instance, Kim et al. (2015) showed that psychologically
healthier individuals have stronger preferences for anger when they perceive
confrontational demands, but when they perceive collaborative demands, they
prefer more happiness. 


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