Emblica officinalis

This fruit has been constantly reported to exhibit anticancer activities (Madhuri, Pandey, Verma, 2011). Emblica officinalis Gaertn belongs to the famly Euphorbiaceae. It is commonly known as amla or Indian gooseberry. Emblica has been used as an important traditional herbal medicine in Southeast Asia since ancient times. The fruits contain constituents with variable biological activity. Emblica is a good source of polyphenols, flavones, tannins and other bioactive substances. (Merina, Chandra, Jibon, 2012)

Ames Test The Ames Salmonella/microsomemutagenicity assay (Salmonella test; Ames test) is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances that can produce genetic damage that leads to gene mutations. The test employs several histidine dependent Salmonella strains each carrying different mutations in various genes in the histidine operon. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms.

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When the Salmonella tester strains are grown on aminimal media agar plate containing a trace of histidine, only those bacteria that revert to histidine independence (hisC) are able to form colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner. The Ames test is used world-wide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.

The test is also used for submission of data to regulatory agencies for registration or acceptance of many chemicals, including drugs and biocides. International guidelines have been developed for use by corporations and testing laboratories to ensure uniformity of testing procedures. (Mortelmans, Zeiger, 2000)The procedure used in this study is a simplified version of the test done in the study Antimutagenicity and Anticancer Effects of Citrus Medica Fruit Juice.