is really just an organized lightning. Every comfort that the human being enjoys
needs the power to operate. Can you Imagine a day without electricity viz a day
without operating machines, home appliances, electric train etc.? Can you
imagine what is the electricity requirement of India?

to reports, the utility electricity sector in India has one National Grid with
an installed capacity of 330.86 GW as on 31 December 2017. Renewable power
plants constituted 31.7% of total installed capacity. During the fiscal year
2016-17, the gross electricity generated by utilities in India was 1,236.39 TWh
and the total electricity generation (utilities and non-utilities) in the
country was 1,433.4 TWh. The gross electricity consumption was 1,122 kWh per
capita in the year 2016-17. India is the world’s third-largest producer and
fourth largest consumer of electricity. India receives sunshine over 300 days a
year which is most of the time. About 5,000 trillion kWh per year energy is
incident over India’s land area. Theoretically, a small fraction of the total
incident solar energy (if captured effectively) can meet the entire country’s
power requirements.

have contributed to the evolution to reach the apex of success that we claim
today, but at the same time harming the environment with pollution whether it
be air, land or water by consuming more conventional resources.  So, to repay the debt and save the
environment from further depletion, we should join our hands to adopt green
energy i.e. Solar Energy. It is cost efficient and available abundantly in many
regions of the earth.

Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi had committed India to ensure that its
energy demands would be met with 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022. Of this,
100 GW would be solar-powered. 40 GW of this energy would be through
solar-powered rooftops. Net metering is crucial for India if it wants to
achieve this high aimed target. India’s vision of achieving 40 gigawatts (GW)
of rooftop-solar energy by 2022 seems difficult, says in a report by CARE
Ratings and PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

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the question arises why it seems difficult? What factors are causing hindrance
and making this vision blur?


metering is an agreement that allows the solar PV system owner to sell excess
solar energy to the utility company or buy deficit energy from the utility
company using a meter to track this energy exchange. Different states have
different policies and variable exchange rates. Thus, two major reasons of
impediment can be primarily:


Tariff Structure: The tariff structure is highly ambiguous and
disproportionate. If the energy supplied by the consumer to the grid (selling)
is at a special, usually higher, tariff rate than the one at which electricity
is bought from the grid (buying), then it is called a “feed-in-tariff”.
However, if the selling and buying are at the same tariff-rate (usually the
buying rate), then it is called net-metering. And herein lies a problem. Also,
distribution companies wary in implementing the Net-metering for their own
reasons. Here is one such example-

actual average tariff rate varies widely in each state ranging from
approximately Rs. 2.8/unit in Chhattisgarh to Rs. 6.15/unit in Maharashtra for
MSEDCL consumers. Residential rooftop solar PV systems today, on the other
hand, produce electricity at a fairly constant cost across the country of
approximately Rs. 10/unit – reducing yearly as system prices drop. Thus a
net-metering customer in Chhattisgarh will have to sell electricity at a loss
of almost Rs 7/unit. Only residential customers in the highest consumption of
some states benefit as they can sell at a profit and recover their investment
within a few years. Subsequently, this discperency need to be addressed.


2)  Grid reliability: The foremost requirement
for any energy source to connect to the grid is the availability of
“anti-islanding protection”. Anti-islanding protection is a way for the
inverter to shut itself off and stop feeding power into the grid, when it
senses a problem with the power grid, such as a power outage. This requirement
is crucial because when problems arise with the power grid, it is assumed that
workers will be sent to deal with it, and the power lines need to be completely
safe – i.e. not have electricity flowing from all the nearby PV grid-tie
systems – so that the workers can fix them without putting their lives in danger.

to be Taken:


combat these problems and to encourage net metering we should make financial
policy i.e. the solar industry, its financiers and the Indian government will
have to introduce innovative financial incentives (may be such as tax-credits)
to make choosing solar through net-metering easier for consumers.

of the states in India, unfortunately, suffer from frequent power outages,
mostly due to load shedding rather than problems in the grid’s infrastructure.
Thus when the grid shuts off, the solar PV inverter will also turn off
completely, preventing the owner from using the generated energy for
themselves. With high unreliability of the grid, a lot of the electricity
generated by the solar PV system will be wasted. This is a key reason for
consumers to adopt solar with net-metering. The anti-islanding protection is an
essential safety feature that cannot be removed. Thus, the solution is
technological innovation. Inverter manufacturers will have to make their
inverters capable of cutting off the connection to the grid in case of grid
failure, while still being able to operate (acquire reference voltage) and
provide solar energy for use. If such a provision is available then
net-metering customers can still use their grid-connected PV systems even
during power outages.


all challenges, the industry continues to see a ray of hope in the face of
Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, who personally reviews the mission and also
expects the government to ramp up back logs and move swiftly, to achieve the
glorious vision of India. Promising developments on the technology front both
in the cell segments and inverter advancements as well as in the storage space
are expected to reduce prices further and enable greater adoption of solar
rooftop in residential and commercial sectors. It is our wisdom that drives us
to ameliorate and prospers in the finite existence that we owe to the supreme


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