EducationThe word education is derived from two Latin words i.e “educare” which means to train or tomold and “educere” means to leadout. These two meanings are quite different but are represented in the wordeducation. Educationis basically the process of receiving and giving systematic instructionsespecially at a school, college and university. Gaining education is basicallyan enlighting experience. The knowledge that is gained through education helpsin opening doors to a lot of opportunities in career growth. It also helps toface most difficult challenges of life.
Now-a-days, education is vital tool forsuccessful life. Education is the process of developing a habit of gainingknowledge, skills, values and beliefs. Educational methods include discussions,teaching, training and directed research. Education can be gain under thesupervision of special educators. Education can take place in formal orinformal way and any experience that has a formative effect on the way onethinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The method of teaching iscalled Pedagogy.EducationSystem:Education system is basically thepublic schooling not private schooling and more commonly to the kindergartenthrough high school programs. Schools are the start of basic education system.
Every state, city and country has a proper educational system. Educationaldiscussions are frequently used in media and public. It may be a difficult todetermine precisely what this term is actually describing.Types of educationThere are different types ofeducation. One way is to divide it into formaleducation, non-formal education,and informal education. “It is difficult to make aclear distinction between formal and informal learning as there is often acrossover between the two.
” Formal education is usually in schoolwhere a child can learn basic, academic, or trade skills. Small children takeadmission in nursery or kindergartenbut often formal education starts in elementary school and continues with secondary school. Post-secondary educationis usually at a college or university.After completing this education, we get a degree which helps in getting jobsand make better future.· Pre-schools: Preschools provide education fromthree to seven years old children. It depends on the country when childrenenter primary education. These are also known as nursery schools and kindergarten, except in the US, where kindergarten is a term used for primary education.Kindergarten provides a child centered, preschool curriculum.
· Primary: Primary education consists of thefirst five to seven years of formal education. In general, primary educationconsists of six to eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six,although this varies between and sometimes within countries. The divisionbetween primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generallyoccurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems haveseparate middle schools with the transition to the final stage of secondaryeducation taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provideprimary education are mostly referred to as primary schools or elementaryschools.
Primary schools are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.· Secondary:Secondary education starts from seventhto the tenth year of schooling. Basically, it starts from the teenage.Secondary education comprises of formal education. In the United States,Canada, and Australia, primary andsecondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year1–13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge to prepare for higher educationor to train directly in a profession.
· Tertiary:Higher education, also called tertiary,third stage, or postsecondary education, it is the non-compulsory educationallevel that follows the completion of a school such as a high school orsecondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduateand postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training.Colleges and universities mainly provide tertiary education. Collectively,these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions.
Individuals who completetertiary education generally receive certificates, diplomas,or academic degrees.Non-formal education is basically that education which can be gain by personalexperiences and skills. It includes adult basic education, adult literacyeducation or school equivalency preparation. In non-formal education someone canlearn literacy, other basic skills or job skills. Home education,individualized instructiondistance learningand computer-assisted instructionis another source of getting knowledge.Informal educationis a parent teaching to a child how to prepare a mealor ride a bicycle. People can get aninformal education by reading booksfrom a library or educational websites.Informal education is basically what you get by yourself without going to anyeducational place i.
e. when you are not studying in a school and do not use anyparticular learning method.Useof National Language and International LanguageIn today’s world, it is difficult forus to understand the rights of humans. World is full of materialism.
To realizethe rights of humans for providing education is biggest developmental challengeof time. To provide education to every single human being we need to developequity-enhancing policies. We should ignore race, sex, language, religion,colour political and economic issues while developing any educational policy.Getting education in one’s motherlanguage is easy way to grab knowledge.
Every country has its national languageknown as Mother Language in which things can be learn easily. All the Constitutionsstate that “everyone has the right to receive education in the officiallanguage or languages of their choice in public educational institutions wherethat education is reasonably practicable”. Medium of instruction is basicallylanguage use in teaching methodology. It may include official language ornational language of the state or country. If the first language of a child isdifferent from official language, it may be used as a medium of instruction forthe schooling or a part of it.Qualityand Quantity in Education Quality and Quantitydo not go hand-in-hand- the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi also believes on thissaying. In a recently held programme, the Prime Minister said that: “It is time to givemore attention on the quality of education rather than on its quantity.”Since, from many years, government isfocusing on the construction of schools, colleges and universities rather thanimproving the quality of education.
Government is focusing on the buildings andhiring new staff for activities. Emphasis should be on learning rather than onthe construction of new buildings. In all aspects of the school andits surrounding education community, the rights of the whole child, and allchildren, to survival, protection, development and participation are at thecentre. This means that the focus is on learning which strengthens thecapacities of children to act progressively on their own behalf through theacquisition of relevant knowledge, useful skills and appropriate attitudes andwhich creates for children, and helps them create for themselves and others,places of safety, security and healthy interaction. (Bernard, 1999)Quality basicallydepends on certain elements:Qualityof school facilities:Quality of school has an indirect effect on learning.
Schools must havewell-equipped buildings to open air gatherings.Safeenvironment: There should be discipline inclassroom. Girls should feel safe in such environment. Teachers should actnicely and listens to students issues and solve them wisely.
Lifeskills and Outcomes: Psychosocial and interpersonal skillscan be applied to many contexts. Life skills can be achieved by focusing onquantity of education. Education System in PakistanIn Pakistan, thereare 260,903 institutions and 41,018,384 students that are getting educationfrom 1,535,461 teachers. The education system includes 180,846 publicinstitutes and 80,057 private institutes.
Hence 31% educational institutes arerunning by private sector and 69% are public institutes.Problemsin Education SystemThese problems aremessing up the education system and creating difficulty in promoting literacy. Lack of Proper Planning: Pakistan isfacing difficulty in fulfilling the international commitments due to financialmanagement issues. That’s why unable to achieve MDGs and EFA goals. Social constraints:People are not supporting government socially and culturally to create awarenessin people about education.Gender discrimination:In rural areas, 45% girls are getting education which is lower than urban girlswhile the difference of boys in 10% only. People in lower areas are focusing onboys education and neglecting their daughters due to their culture, traditions,norms and values.
Some families are doing this due to trend of early agemarriages in villages. Cost of education is high: In private schools education is too expensive whichis affordable by few families. The rest of people are sending their children ingovernment schools due to lack of money but there is higher difference inquality of education. Funds for Education:89% Education expenditure comprises of expenses like staff salaries while other11% is using in development of new educational institutes at National level.
Technical Education: Pakistan is lacking technical and vocationaleducation due to training institutes. Pakistan is deprived infrastructure,teachers and tools of training. People have talent but due to lack ofopportunities half of total population is jobless which is effecting nationaldevelopment.
Therefore, government needs to pay attention on technicaleducation. Gender Discrimination in EducationGender is defined as set of behaviors,roles and positions which can be culturally attributed to women and men. Thegender process is given at time of birth and after that we live according tothe given instructions set by our culture and traditions.
Schools serve animportant agent of social being in society. There are gender rules that are setby every institute especially for female staff. Every working place has seniorstaff which set the rules for every gender. Teachers play vital role inaccepting behavior and attitude which is formally acceptable.Gender discrimination is a very commonproblem all over the world. Generally, it means creating biases against anyonebased on their gender or sex.
Due to this kind of discrimination we arecreating a sense of inequality. Mostly women fall victim to it.In the developing countries, females are discriminated against solely becauseof their biological attributes. As a result, women are not provided with theluxury of enjoying the same opportunities as males in the social, cultural,political or economic sense.
GenderDiscrimination against GirlsIn educational institutes there is discrimination againstwomen’s life just because they consider them unequal to men in every field.There are multiple barriers in life of girl’s right to get education at manyplaces.Poor families have to face many issues due to poverty sothey just want to satisfy their basic needs.
Due to higher illiteracy rate insuch families, they use to do gender discrimination against girls. They havelimited sources to support the education of girls, so they prefer their sons toprovide education rather than their daughters. They actually think that to runa household girls don’t need education. In young age many poor low classfamilies put burden of household responsibility on their daughters which forcesthem to quit their studies.
Some cultures have their norms, values andtraditions which don’t allow girls to get education. In many small areasschools, colleges are too far to go and due to Covance problem. They are notallowed to go far away for education due to safety concerns.GenderDiscrimination against BoysAfter a lot of research it comes tolight that boys also face gender discrimination at many places especially ateducational sector. Boys have aggressive nature that’s why they are treated indifferent manner at certain places. They are trouble concentrating in studies.
Teachers especially male staff behave in a nicer way with girls as compare toboys. There are some fields where boys are not given importance like nursing,stereotyped to be taken over by girls.Hence, gender discussion is very commonat all places especially in educational sector and working place. Somewhere itis highly observed due to illiteracy and somewhere due to traditions andculture.
Co-education System:Opinions are sharply divided on the issue of co-educationin our country. Some people consider it morally dangerous to put boys and girlstogether at one place to study. There are some people who have firm faith inco-education. They say it is a great source of betterment for boys and girls atall levels. Co- education at primary level exists in our country but theopposition begins at secondary level. “Integrity has no need of rules.”Today, female folks cannot beconfined to the restricted orbits allotted to them. Previously, they were notallowed to act and choose according to their own wishes.
They have rightlyclaimed equality with men because they constitute the fifty one percent of ourtotal population. As a matter of fact, they have proved to the world that theyare inferior to none. Islam and the Constitution of Pakistan have stressed theequality of both the sexes. It is unfair to cherish the co-education fostersfoul fusion and carnal pleasures.
In fact when there is free mixing of boys andgirls, sex consciousness will be least aroused. If there is segregation ofgirls from boys, curiosity is aroused. Students of co-educational institutionsnever care to think in terms of man and women. They know only one thing thatthey are learners.
“Every man has threecharacters- that which he exhibits, that which he has and that which he thinkshe has.” Co-education is beneficial because it is cheap and economical. It isfinancially difficult to open separate institutes for girls with highlyqualified staff, good libraries and well-equipped laboratories. Inco-educational institutions, there is a healthy competition between boys and girl,which leads to eventually better results.
“Convictions are more dangerous enemies of truth than lies.”AnAnalysis of Issues and Problems in Education System: Education can be improved by focusing on quality of education not quantity. People need to be aware of importance of education in life.
Gender discrimination should be banned in al over the world. Equality must be the first priority. Attention should be needed on shortage of teachers and basic facilities for students.
In backward areas, buildings should be constructed near public areas for the facility of females to get education.