Education is an important factorboth in the day-to-day success of the child and in contributing to thepersonal, social, cultural and economic fulfillment of the future adult. PrimaryEducation in Pakistan aims to develop each child’s potential tothe full, encourage a love of learning and help children to develop theirskills that they will use all their lives. The primary stage of education is ofprime importance for the building of career. This stage enables a child toraise a standard of his/her personality.Primary Education in Pakistan is accepted as abasic right of everyone both at national and international level. Theconstitution of IslamicRepublic of Pakistan, 1973clearly lays down the provision in Article 37 (b) that:”Thestate of Pakistan shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsoryprimary and secondary education within the minimumpossible period.”Parental involvement in the studies of children atprimary level is very important because at this students are more interested intheir studies. They try to find more and more knowledge.
They need guidance atevery step of their academic decisions. Parentshave to guide them through participating with them in their educational activitiesi.e helping them with their homework or in the understanding of the concepts.
According to Gullatt (1997, p. 36), the involvement of the parents is a goodthing for student’s academic achievement. Green (1992) called parents assupporters and active partners as well.Statementof the ProblemParental Involvement plays a very important role in the academic achievement ofstudents.
Parental involvement is a key to nourish and grooming of the child.Parenting is a process in which children are taught from birth till adulthood.(Keith, 1986) Schools should arrangeprograms for parents to participate in and become the part of the students’education and become a supporter of them.ResearchQuestionsThe following research question will guidethis study:Is there any positive or negativerelationship between parental involvementand students’ achievement at primary level?HypothesisThe study will be conducted to:1. Checkthe relationship of parental involvementand students’ achievement in the subject of English at the primary level.
2. Checkthe relationship of parental involvementand students’ achievement in the subject of Mathematics at the primary level. Purposeof the StudyThepurpose of this study is to define how much the parents are involved in thestudies of their children and what does the roletheir involvement play in the achievementof their students in the subject of English and Mathematics.Significanceof the StudyThis study will ensure that parental involvement is very important for thestudents’ achievements. It will aware the school teachers and the administrators that PTM should be arranged atprimary level so may the parents have a betterunderstanding of students’ performance in the curricular and co-curricularactivities. The relationship betweenteachers, students, and the parents willbe strong by this study.
This study will allow the stakeholders to identify the effectiveand specific strategies to increase parental involvement.DelimitationsThis study will be delimited to the fifth-grade studentsof Govt. Primary School Lahore and their parents respectively.Definitionof the TermsParent: The definition includes not onlybiological parents but also guardians, aunt and uncles grandparents, and siblingswho are involved in the school for thebenefit of a specific student.Parental Involvement:Parental involvementrefers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to schoolingand her child’s life.Academic Achievement: The definition of academic achievement refers tothe level of schooling you havesuccessfully completed and the ability to attain success in your studies.ReviewReview of theLiteratureThepurpose of the literature review will be to explore parental involvementdefinitions, the relationship betweenparental involvement and academic success in the previous studies, the impact of parental involvementfactors on academic success, and barriers to parent involvement.Definitionof the Parental InvolvementParental involvement in the schoolsindicates the participation of parents in the academic activities of their students.
Participation in the PTMs, support days, resultdays etc. parental involvement encourages the students to learn best. Theproper definition of parental involvement is as under:”Parentalinvolvement is reading to preschool children. It is getting children ready forschool every morning.
It is volunteering at the school. It is serving oncollaborative decision making committees,and it is lobbying legislatures to advocate for children” (Jesse, 1996, p.2).Parentalinvolvement and Academic Achievement inthe previous studiesHow parental involvement influences schooloutcomes, namely the third level in Hoover Dempsey and Sandler’s (1997) model,was the main focus of McNeal (1999). McNeal (1999) argued that the involvementof parents in their child’s education influences student outcomes through threemechanisms. The first mechanism, socializing, refers to home-based involvement,such as supervising homework, by which parents emphasize the importance ofschooling.
Generating social control through school-based involvement is the secondmechanism; school-based involvement offers parents the opportunity to developrelationships with teachers and other parents, and in discussing their child’sbehavior, to learn from them. The last mechanism is having access to insiderinformation by communicating with the school. By this mechanism, parents willbe, for example, earlier and better informed about the available solutions ininstances of learning or behavioral problems. McNeal’s theory specifies differentoutcomes for the three mechanisms: socialization and social control affect theattitude, motivation, and behavior of thestudent while having access to insiderinformation has a direct effect on bothcognitive and behavioral student outcomes (McNeal 1999).The Impact ofParental Involvement Factors on Academic SuccessDefinitefamily traditions have been significant factors contributory to children’sacademic achievement. These factors, as investigated by Clark (1983), takeaccount of valuing schooling and invitinga sense of self-importance in school, setting up specific daily and weeklyfamily habits, establishing family responsibilities and household tasks, andclosely managing and monitoring children’s use of prearranged and formlesstime.In addition,encouraging reading, talking with children about everyday incidences,discussion with children about school add to academic success.
Visiting theschool and turning out to be a supporter, encouraging children and families tobuild up hobbies and supplementary activities, and finally, spending excellencefamily time together are factors that also donate to children’s academicsuccess. Academicachievement of the learners depends on many factors. Parenting practices are amongthose factors. The higher the parenting practices are rightly used or applied,the higher the possibility of the learners getting good results, andvice-versa.
Barriers to Parent InvolvementA number of barriersto parent involvement have been identified in the previous studies. TheNational PTA (1996) defines the greatest shared barriers as the lack of time,not being valued, and not knowing how to contribute. Additional barriers toparent involvement contain not understanding the educational system, childcareproblems, language, cultural changes, and transportation problems.Additionally, parents often do not feel welcomed. Little literacy levels,educational verbiage, superciliousness, boring meetings, and parents who haveunmet requirements themselves are also barriers to parent involvement.