Due to the report as of 30 June2017, the internet users worldwide was 3.58 billion which is higher thanprevious year record 3.39 billion.
(https://www.statista.com) In the year 2005, only around1.02 billion use internet and start from 2005, the internet users rate isconstantly growing because it is easier for people to access the computer andincreased mobile phone usage encourage people to use the internet frequently.As the world becomes highly connected and globalized, it becomes a flattenedworld and the information from the north part of the world can be easilyaccessed by the southern part of the world.
Globalization helps the businessorganizations in many ways such as helping the firm to produce goods andservices with extraordinary cost reductions by finding low-cost suppliers fromdifferent countries and managing production facilities in other countries. Theblooming of the Internet into international communication systems helps toreduce the operating and transacting cost of the business on a global scale.Therefore, especially the large manufacturing film, the information systemplays a vital role in coordinating the activities within manufacturingindustries which engage in producing and processing the products and automatingmany steps in business processes which were produced manually. Corporate firmsalso have to deal with different information to organize work activities inorder to operate efficiently and effectively and increase the firm’s performance.The flow of information can be changed and accessed to many more people andshare information when the new technology is emerged. Nowadays, businesseshighly rely on information systems as they can achieve the strategic businessobjectives with the help of information systems.
Information systems play aneffective tool in practicing Operational Excellence which is one of the businessobjectives. For example, KPI for business processes can be measured and storedinto a database and as a next step, KPI can be value-added as informationsystem is also an effective tool in creating value for the organization. Andinformation can change the entire business models, for example, from formermanual business into automated business. Not only to achieve OperationalExcellence, information system helps the managers in decision making process.Information system support the organizations by combining the raw data tocompile the useful information and documents which helps the managers to getthe real time data of the market or the organization operation process asmanagers had to rely only on the forecasts not the actual data in the past.
The final aim of all the businessfirms is to minimize the cost, maximize the profit and achieve competitiveadvantage. To be able to achieve those, the business firms have to know theneeds of customers and suppliers. Walmart, thebiggest retailer in the world, use the information system effectively. Datacenter which has a capacity of 460 terabytes of data, universalbar code, which allowed the suppliers and retailers to genarate all kinds ofinformation whichthey can tract the inventory and it helps in cost reduction. For trackingPoint-Of-Sale, preparing a payroll and billing a customers, Walmart use TPS(Transaction Process System) which summarize, record and merge the raw datainto the form of report. This report can be past, present and forecast and canbe used by managers effectively.
None of the company except Walmart use theinformation system effectively. Therefore, managing the information system isalso essential for the organizations. The organization can learn the diverseneeds through various information system such as decision support system,modelling system etc. Management information system provides the managerseverything for efficient and faster decision making and productive strategy planning.Therefore, in order to know the need of not only the internal organization suchas operation processes, human resources but also the external environment suchas the local or international market, businesses are heavily reliant on theinformation systems. Althoughthere are a lot of benefits in using information system, there can be alsoother unforeseen threats of using information system. Such threads may bedifferent types of damages and such damages may lead to the financial losses.
Asthe communication technologies are highly developed and internet are easilyaccessible, organizations face to threads such as insecurity of theinformation. Big organizations face such system security threads as largeamount of data are stored in a database. Vulnerability varies from some threadswhich cause computer system breakdown to some leads to data loss which impactscompany’s image. Not every system is safe and secure. Therefore, nowadays,system security and control is the first priority to the organizations whichhugely rely on information system.
There are various types of threadsto attack the system such as virus threats, spyware threats, hackers, malware, phishingthreats, etc. As communication networks are well developed, you can get theinformation in different locations through information system. Vulnerabilitiescan take place in every layers of the networks such as from client(user) tocorporate systems. Such attack could allow the user to access the data withoutauthorization, stealing, altering the data and some attack can cause harm tothe computer to temporarily break down. If the computer system breaks down anddoesn’t work properly, the systems malfunction cannot be arranged to fit it ina designated task. Not only system vulnerabilities but also internetvulnerabilities is an important factors to tackle. Such internetvulnerabilities increasily occurs through using e-mail, instant messages andsome file sharing programs. Some may find the attachment in email which is akind of malware or unauthorized access to internal corporate system.
Ifemployees open the attachment, they may transmit the company’s financial dataor confidential information to unauthorized recipient and it can cause thetrouble to the company. Malicious software system which includes variousthreads such as virus, worms, trojan horses, spyware and hackers can destroythe data or access the information without authorization and computer crimesuch as phishing thread, identity theft, bluesnarfing and social engineeringwill steal your personal information and support the fraudsters to escape fromthe crime. A kind of software which is linked with other software program,computer virus performs the malicious action without user’s knowledge. It canreproduce itself and entering onto other programs or files and causing programsto run improperly. Virus spread from one computer to another through hard disksor when users open and copy the infected file using network or file sharingprograms. Another kind of thread software is worm and unlikes viruses, it canduplicate itself and doesn’t rely on other computer software.
The fact thatworm is worse than virus is that it destroys and all the data and programs. Moreover, as most of the instant messaging applicationsdo not use any security system in an application, the outsiders can track orread the important messages while the users use the internet. Not only through instant message but also through peer-to-peer (P2P) network, outsider can getthe confidential information.
Free wireless network at airport or publiclocation is not completely safe either as outsiders can easily hack usinglaptops, wireless cards and hacking software. Outsiders will try to access thepasswords or credit card numbers of the users who log on to the network whichis pretended to offer trustworthy Wi-Fi connections. Denial-of-Service Attack known as”DOS” Attack is the software which forces the network server, website or aservice to stop running. Unlikes virus or worms threat, DOS attack doesn’tdestroy the data of the organization, however, it makes the websites of thecompanies or services shut down by flooding network with lots of traffic andrequests and it causes the network crash. The example of DOS attack would beagainst BBC websites on December 31, 2015. A group named New Worldhacking knock the BBC websites and its iplayer streaming service down forseveral hours and make many users complaint as the website are unavailable dueto the attack. Although DOS attack doesn’t steal or remove the data or otherassets, it makes the organization to spend money and time to recover thewebsite. Another computer crime is identity theft which thefraudsters try to obtain the personal informations and pretend to be someone else.
Among the victims,Bill Gates, Steven Speilberg and Oprah Winfrey are the well-known people whohave experienced identity theft. Somehow, there is an internalthreads in an organization which is the employee. Employees who have limitedknowledge of technology face the problem of not recognizing the virus. Someemployees allowed others to know their computers passwords and use them.
Therefore,employee’s lack of common knowledge also lead to insecurity. And someemployess surf the internet for personal use- may be watching the youtube videoor playing game. And malicious software come to attack by pretending they arefrom the members of the company. When employees enter into a trap, thoseintruders can track all of the information of the company such as finaicialdata or confidential important which is very important to the organization.
Therefore, it is important to give the employees the proper knowledge abouttechnology. The most common cyber attacks inmost of the organizations is ransomware attacks, a kind of cyber kidnapping. Ransomwareis a malicious software which take over your computer and encrypted the data orinformation so that the owners couldn’t access to their data.
If theorganization paid the ransomware during their time limit, hackers transfer thekey to decrypt the files. In order to get the access to the computer of thetargeted victim, ransomware use some delivery system and it can be more thanone. Most common delivery systems are phishing emails, social engineeringschemes, malvertising networks or watering hole attacks. With ransomware,hackers harm the computer, steal the data inside it and demand the money fromthe actual owners. Therefore, ransomware becomes one of the fastest growingcyber threads used by hackers to take out the profit from victims.
You may lostall the confidential and important information in your computer if it has beenattacked by ransomware. Nowadays most of the organizations face this commoncyber thread and not only lost billions of money but also have to spend so muchtime to get systems back. Moreover, ransomware can be very harmful toorganization’s productivity because all the production process had to on holduntil the important data is recovered and the system is secured.
Although organizations are trying toprevent the ransomware attacks, hackers keep trying to find ways to advance theransomware system and the system is continuously advanced. In 2017, theadvanced ransomware system makes the organizations around the world shock as itcan hit businesses in more than 100 countries within 48 hours and is recordedas biggest attack among ransomware attacks. That ransomware is wanna decryptor2.0 known as WannaCry or wcry. WannaCry 2.0 is a specific ransomware systemwhich block all the data access and leaves the users only with the instructionsof what to do next and WannaCry program information.
When the users open thesoftware, they are informed that all the data are encrypted and are asked forpayment in Bitcoin. If the users don’t know how to buy Bitcoin, the softwarewill provide you the information to buy and bitcoin address to send to. According to 2016 ransomware reportwhich surveyed in four countries such as United Kingdom, the United States,Canada and Germany, 40% of business organizations were attacked by ransomware,30% of business lost the revenue and 20% of victims have to stop the businessimmediately which cause thousands of employees lost their jobs. Therefore,cyber attacks can also indirectly increase the unemployed rate. As the victimscouldn’t know they are attacked until the hackers take over the computers and blockaccess to all the data files, some businesses don’t get enough time forprevention and according to research, nearly 19% of the organizations had tostop the business immediately. As nearly 60% of the ransomware attacks onbusiness demanded over $1000 and over 20% of attacks claimed over $10,000, somesmall business cost lot of money to recover their data and their loss is biggerthan the large organization because large companies can use sophisticatedsystems and those system can be able to sense this attack and minimize thedamage. However, paying the ransomware can’t guarantee that all of the data canbe retained safely because fraudsters are not someone who are trustworthypeople. But if the company doesn’t pay till deadline they give, all theencryption and decryption keys will not be transferred and that means all thedata will be lost.
As the network system is welldeveloped in most of the countries, such malware attacks are often occurredanywhere in the world. Most countries which is attacked mostly include UnitedKingdom, the United States, Russia, China, Germany, India, South Korea, etc andthose attacks can negatively impact the country and organizations. That’s whycountries and organizations are more emphasized on preparations for cyber attacknowadays. However, the question is how we will protect the sudden ransomwareattack. Malware attackers are fully aware of the basic traditional ways theorganization use to avoid the thread and therefore, they are continuouslydeveloping the ransomware system until the system are advanced. It makes thesociety to increase the awareness of the cyber security and learn more basicknowledges about technology in order to minimize the chance of leaking out theinformation which negatively impact on organizations. Organization must protectthe security of not only their own information but also shareholders, businesspartners, customers and employees as well. If they fail to protect them, itcould create harm to the organization and organization will have to handle therisk.
As their main target is the confidential orimportant information of organizations or individuals, the organization orindividual should back up their information first. If there is back upinformation, even if the ransomware attack and the company data is lost, thereis not much damages in organization. However, especially for the largeorganizations which retain thousands of information, sophisticated securitysystem is always needed as connecting to the internet would be dangerous ifthere is no medium which protects malware and intruders. Firewalls, intrusiondetection system, antivirus and antispyware software are essential tools forbusiness to protect fraud, computer crime and various malicious software. FirewallsMalicious software such as virusand worms steal and remove the data while firewalls don’t allow theunauthorized users accessing from other computers.
Firewalls is well known asthe protection tool which protect the private network from public one. Firewallsban all the unauthorized between internal and external world. The outer barrierof firewalls blocks all the entries except those destined for service and theinner barrier of firewalls cut off all outgoing traffic. It helps theorganization to minimize the various attack systems.
IntrusionDetection System Intrusion Detection System is thesoftware application which check and record the network and find if anysuspicious process occurs. Intrusion Detection System monitors full-time andgive an alert if it detects a malicious process. IDS also featured the toolwhich can cut off a specific part of a network if it is entered throughunauthorized access. Antivirusand Antispyware Software One of the basic method of defensingthe malware attack is installing antivirus and antispyware software in everycomputer in the business. Antivirus software detects and erase the malware suchas virus, worms, spyware, Trojan horses and other programs which are designedto damage a system. However, new kind of viruses are found out everyday andantivirus software need to be updated regularly. Antispyware protects fromleaking out the information to the third party without the owner’s knowledge.
Especially the organizations should have both antivirus and antispywaresoftware. 5.As an employee of a highly connected and globalized world, highlight anddiscuss critically those ethical issues that may arise from using connecteddevices in organization. Information technology is constantlyimproving and internet and various information systems help the individual andorganizations to be able to access the information of one another in a shorttime. Although organizations may gain benefit from information system as thedata they get from information system largely support in decision-makingprocess, on the other side, it increases the ethical issues.