Dr. Stephen Hawking’s theory about the origin of the universe depends on clues that the same universe provides to us. An example of this is the phenomenon Doppler shift, which we experience on earth when we see a car moving towards us having a “slightly blue color” and when it is moving farther away having a “slightly red color”. By the same principles, we know the “universe is expanding in all directions” since all the distant galaxies are red shifted. Dr. Stephen Hawking explains that when the universe began to expand everything was so much closer together.
The universe began about fourteen billion years ago when the Big Bang happened. Dr. Hawking explains “The universe simply burst into existence”. Light didn’t exist yet so within this darkness remained only an “ultra-Hot Fog of energy” which expanded from “smaller than an atom to about the size of an orange in less than a trillionth of a second”. Here is where Matter began to be created from the “pure energy of the cosmos “cooling down. Matter and antimatter collided, destroying each other in a” flash of energy.
” But fortunately, there was more matter than antimatter and “that residue is what our present-day universe is made of”, explains Dr. Hawking. After this event, another important key is revealed, Gravity. Gravity was formed in the big bang and it helped to “pull the gas” that was left after the big bang to “produce the first structures from which everything else would grow” creating the universe. Although nothing would have existed if it wasn’t because of imperfection, as Dr. Hawking explains.
He proved this back in 1982 with a group of scientists. They discovered that “the early universe had a tiny unevenness” which helped with the way gravity shaped the universe. They explained it with ball bearings representing the “sea of early gas” and its irregularities. The less dense areas representing the gaps between the ball bearings and the magic happening in the “denser parts where gravity clumped together” in which “all stars and galaxies would fall.
” Making everything that followed, possible. Gravity took a big part in the formation of the elements. Gravity slowly brought the hydrogen gas that was distributed in space together into huge clouds compressing them for over millions of years until “hydrogen became hot enough for fusion to occur” which then created Helium.
Then a star or “giant factory” was formed in which elements such as oxygen, carbon, and iron were created. The formation of this elements depended on the heavier elements sinking to the center of the star creating then new elements each time. While this process repeated itself countless times the star became “layered like an onion”.
For example, Helium being a little bit heavier than hydrogen sank to the center of the star and started to fuse and produce more energy which then gave birth to the element known as carbon. Everything worked fine until it reached to the element Iron in the star’s heart. This element “does not produce energy when it fuses” and this had a huge effect on the star leaving it without “fuel”. Gravity then took over and begun to compress the “star in on itself” reaching a really high temperature until the star finally collapsed and exploded which we call a supernova.
In the midst of the powerful explosion, Iron fused into heavier elements such as gold, platinum, lead finalizing then the process of the formation of the elements.