DIY material practices are characterised by the renaissance of craftsmanship (Bardzel et al.
2012). They are boosted by the democratic technologies and practices of combing, making, crafting and personal fabrication (Kuznetsove and Paulos, 2010). DIY practices are ground on knowing action, i.e.
experimental knowledge obtained through making materials. The outcome of this process is often a self-produced material by thinking through the material at hand (Nimkulrat, 2012).Thus the process of making materials by hand can be identified as a way of thinking intellectually (Sennet, 2008 pp. 149-153). In other words in DIY practice is dynamic learning process and understanding through experience of material is required (Karana et al., 2015). According to Ashby and Johnson (2002) classification is the first step, for bringing order to any scientific achievement.
The founders of biology, zoology and geology were those who created the classification systems. Classification segregates an initially disordered population into groups that in some way have significant similarities (Ayala, Rognoli & Karana 2017).DIY materials are analysed in different kingdoms based on a source of the material. Similar groups of similar items were classified into one kingdom. DIY material kingdoms are classified under the inspiration by the first biological classification done by the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carolus Linnaeus. He named this classification as Systema Naturae (Linnaeus, 1758). Linnaeus published biological classification of the earth is known as Linnaean taxonomy Fig 3.
3. He divided the earth based on a hierarchical classification of the natural world divided into three main kingdoms namely; plant, animal and minerals (lapideum) (Ayala, Rognoli & Karana 2017). The DIY kingdom is also inspired by the Linneaen taxonomy and divided the DIY materials into five kingdoms based on the analysis of 150 DIY material cases. Animale, Vegetabile, Mutantis, Recuperavit and Lapideum are kingdoms of DIY material taxonomy (Ayala, Rognoli & Karana 2017).Kingdom Vegetabile:When the primary source for DIY Material derived from the plants and fungi, is categorised the material under the kingdom Vegetabile. Traceability of the origin is possible by observing and recognising traces of the main constituents (like plant leafs, fibres, fruit skins and so on). Materials under this kingdom differ from the other kingdom materials, substantially because of their primary source can be driven by growing or farming techniques. Designers who develop or create materials under this category might have to collaborate with farmers or biologists.
Prominent characteristics of DIY-Materials (Fig 3.5) belonging to the Kingdom Vegetabile is the imperfection of the surfaces concerning the touch and sight perception. These materials show unevenness and roughness features to itself or to the designed object made from that particular materialDIY-Materials belong to the Kingdom Animale refer to all material sources derived from animals and bacteria.
First bacteria was not included in the Linnaean taxonomy, but due to bacteria behaves like a living organism, it is now included in the animale kingdom. DIY materials in this kingdom can be developed by the collaborating with living organisms or by using a particular part or parts of the animal like skin, bone or hair. Noticeable attributes include rough and uneven surfaces with high malleability and flexibility. The materials from the animal kingdom are usually asymmetrical, and this imperfection becomes an essential characteristic of this kingdom Fig 3.
6. Animal skin, fur, horns and shells are being used as the primary material for products by several civilisations. They used to represent particular status or the achievement of a specific goal. It is probable that materials from this category still inherit such cultural insight.Kingdom Lapideum: It contains all DIY materials which come from minerals; stones, sand, ceramics, clay etc. Some current cases combine sources from the other kingdoms such as wool or cotton fabrics, but in a lower percentage as compared with the first constitute. Kingdom Lapideum and previous two kingdoms show the natural appearance of their main ingredients and sources.
However irregularities in the shape of the surfaces diminish present corrosion, stains and random coloured surfaces from materials Fig 3.7. This category materials are compromised by the use of machinery and instruments is visible, even if they are simple modification. This kingdom has an active link to crafts probably because these types of materials have a long tradition in our material culture.Kingdom Recuperavit: It compromises all sources society considers as waste can be transformed into a valuable resource.
They often come from plastic, metal or organic waste, sometimes as side products of industrial production. It is at the moment the most prominent kingdom by the number of cases observed. Inside this kingdom, it is visible the designer’s invention towards a more conscious and sustainable future. The different upcycled sources like industrial excess, pieces of plastic, dust and leftovers of food are being observed and practised by the designers. These DIY-Materials usually carry their aesthetical qualities of the original state of their sources. For example, coffee grains maintain their original colour and texture3.
9 ; plastic particles exhibit their vivid colour of smooth surfaces Fig 3.8 The fusion creates a fascinating appearance and gives the new possible scenario of use for the new material.Kingdom Mutantis: DIY materials from this kingdom are created from different technological mixtures of smart, interactive and industrial sources. They are the combination of different material sources, which may be from another kingdom but evolve in particular material with the help of any technology.
According to biology, mutations play a role in both standard and abnormal biological processes of life including evolution. It refers to all cases where transformation occurs with the aid of technology. This transformation represents a significant change in the material’s nature and behaviour in comparison to another kingdom. These materials are intelligent, and their body and surface responds to particular stimuli or invites a specific kind of interactions. Futuristic, artificiality and modernity look gained popularity among DIY materials. High reflective surfaces, luminescent parts and translucent components make similar to smart materials developed by the professional scientists and engineers.
This Kingdom differs from the previous four because these materials production depends on technologies. Mutantis can be anticipated close to the engineered materials of the science domain.The DIY kingdoms are helpful to understand what kind of source designer or amateur want to use as a starting point for material development.
It has been observed through the study of 150 cases and during the development of DIY material kingdom that designers who prefer a self-production process for development of their material they usually select elements from the world of plants and animals and the world of minerals. It has also been discovered that designers use waste as raw sources as well in particular the scraps from industrial processes. Obtaining DIY materials from a wide variety of sources is possible.
It should be emphasized that although it been presented five kingdoms of DIY materials, many cases fall which into two or more different kingdoms. Borders between kingdoms are not strict but loose (Ayala, Rognoli & Karana 2017).