Development through life stages

In this assignment I will be choosing a celebrity of my choice and then I will be going through there different life stages, infancy, childhood, adulthood and old age, then I will be going through their needs (PIES) physical, intellectual, emotional and social.

In task two I will be picking two life stages, then write a report discussing how their development has been affected by nature and nurture. I will also be continuing with the report by evaluating the effects of both genetic inheritance and the environment, referring to nature.

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Conception/pregnancy

During the first month of pregnancy cell multiplication begins, fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus. Then the internal organs and circulatory system begin to form, the small bump shows the beginning of arms and legs.

The second and third month all major body parts have formed. The heart is beating and eyes, ears and nose have developed. The fourth and fifth month the baby is rocked and swayed by mums breathing and walking, the baby’s kidneys start to make urine and the sex organs are distinct. During the eighth month the lungs are maturing and the baby is gaining more fat under the skin, it would measure 18.9 inches and weigh 4-5 pounds by this stage.

During the third month the intellectual of the body appears as the baby can yawn, frown, hiccup and such its thumb. By the sixth month the baby listens to conversations and touches and explores the body. The seventh month the baby can respond to pain also it can recognise voices. When the baby is born it will recognise family voices.

Emotional needs will start at about seven months as the baby will respond to pain and pleasure. The baby can recognise their mothers’ voice.

Whilst pregnant in the last months you can talk to your baby and it will recognise your voice. The baby can’t really have any social needs until it is born and it can interact with parents.

Infancy (0-3 years)

Babies develop rapidly during the first three years of life. They are born with a number of physical reflexes these are Moro reflex, grasp, walking, fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Ages one to six month they can lift up chin, move objects from one hand to another. 2/3 years the child will be able to walk, kick a ball and ride a tricycle.

Children during infancy learn a lot of things. The most important intellectual development is the ability to use and understand language. At around two years of age children will use little words, the development is helped by play, looking at books. They play in different ways this includes solitary play, parallel play, co-operative play and pretend play.

The child from when it’s born will have a strong bond with its mother, it will learn to bond with other family members, as the child gets older he/she will start taking more interest in other children.

As a child there are a lot of social needs going on, a child needs social needs to interact with other children, develop speech and learn new things. At the age of 2/3 the child should be interacting and playing with other children from nursery. Also the child will interact with its parents and other family members.

Childhood (3-12)

Physical development skills continue to develop at this stage, children grow steadily also at this stage but less rapidly during infancy. By the age of six a Childs head will be almost adult size, even though the body still has allot of growing to do. Children’s practical abilities continue to develop. Age eleven to thirteen puberty often starts for girls although some girls may develop earlier.

Bye the age of six, children can often use language as well as some adults., young children learn to make decisions based on what things look like rather than the logic of counting; for example they will say that there is more sweets in a line than a little pile even though there is the same amount of sweets in each. Their language skills become easier to understand, they say things properly. Children continue to develop their knowledge of words and ability to understand and use speech throughout childhood.

Emotional development skills start to develop at this point, they are in greater detail. They start to know and understand who their siblings are such as mum, dad, cousins, aunties and uncles. Children can describe their feelings by 12 years, children need to feel that they are valued be their friends and family. This sense of self forms a basis for an effective concept of self to develop during adolescence.

Social development- it is very important to be able to have the confidence at this age to be social with others. Children like to play alone at times but they will also make new friends to play with at home and school. As children develop they become more and more independent, that learn how to behave socially through the process of socialisation in the family.

Adolescence (12-18)

Physical development especially in girls change because they generally start puberty at about the age of twelve to thirteen or possibly even younger. But for boys it is about thirteen to fifteen years old. Both boys and girls may experience a growth spurt. Girl’s breasts enlarge when they are in puberty; also hair starts to grow in both boys and girls under the arms, the legs, pubic hair. Girls also start a cycle called menstruation this means that for about three to five days a month a woman will bleed.

By adolescence people can often imagine their future and how to achieve things in life. In adolescence you can understand most things that you get told of that is put in front of you. Although adolescents may reason in an adult way, many adolescents do not know enough to make good decisions. People learn new things during adulthood. Their intellectual needs should be high as they have been through school or college.

Emotional development is becoming independent from parents can involve conflict and stress. Adolescence can involve major emotional stresses as people go through rapid social and physical changes, some adolescents have a loss of self- esteem as they transfer from school to work. Becoming independent from parents can involve conflict and stress. The search for love and affection from a sexual partner may not be stress- free. During adolescence people have to work out a self- concept that will guide them through leaving home, perhaps setting up home with a sexual partner, and getting work.

Adolescents become increasingly independent of their family, and friendship groups can become more important than family for the development of social skills as they grow older. Between the ages of thirteen and eighteen, most adolescents will begin to explore relationships with others. The five years between thirteen and eighteen can involve major changes in social behaviour, as people learn to take on adult roles and adult independence. Some adolescents experience conflict with their parents during this period of change.

Adulthood (18 +)

Young adults are often at the peak of physical performance between eighteen and twenty eight years of age. Most champions of highly active sport are aged between sixteen and thirty years. Older adults generally tend to lose some strength and speed with age, although outside competitive sport these changes can be so gradual as to go unnoticed. Exercise is important at this age as it can help develop physical fitness and athletic skills. Women are most able to conceive children in their late teens and early twenties, the risk of miscarriages rises with age. Usually at the ages of forty five and fifty five woman stop being able to get pregnant because of menopause.

Intellectual development in older adulthood decrease during adulthood like their intellectual skills and abilities if they are exercised. Older adults may have slightly slower reaction times, but increased knowledge may compensate for this in many work situations. Older adults may be more skilled than adolescents and young adults when it comes to making complex decisions some adults may develop increased wisdom as they become older.

Emotional development as an individual’s sense of self-esteem will continue to develop throughout adulthood. Some individuals may prefer to live alone or may feel that partnership relationships are too demanding. A person’s previous family experience may strongly influence their expectations of a partner. Successful ageing means remaining emotionally involved with other people. Social development is often a time when people continue to develop their network of personal friends. Marriage and parenthood are important, social life events that are often associated with early adulthood. The pressure to obtain paid employment and hold down a job is also a major social issue for adults. When children leave home, some pressures may be taken off parents, but some may feel that they have lost part on their social purpose when children no longer need their support.

Later adulthood (65 +)

Physical changes in the over sixty fives usually involves some reduction in the efficiency in the body. There are a few physical changes in the older body: The heart, breathing and circulation become weaker, muscles may become weaker and skin becomes less elastic causing wrinkles. The muscles, skin, joints and bones in the body become less flexible and more brittle meaning people can become less active and more at risk of fracturing or breaking a bone in the body also can lead to arthritis.

Intellectual development- some people seem to become less able to solve problems and cope with difficult problems and changes later in life. Mental abilities are influenced by physical health, the more active you are, the more alert you are. The risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer’s disease seems to increase with age.

Some older people may be at risk of losing their self-confidence and self-esteem because of the way others treat them. Some elderly people suffer abuse of younger people this causes depuration and leads to being very hurt and afraid. Or they might be emotional due to their health.

Social development in older people lead varied and different lives, many retired people have a greater opportunity for meeting and making new friends than they did while they were working. A network or family and friends can provide vital practical and emotional support. Health problems and impairments can sometimes cause isolation.