Growth is when there’s a physical change in their body which can occur whilst they grow, this change could be increase of size, height and weight. As you grow older your height will increase.
Development and delayed development is when a child takes time to develop achievement of one or more of his milestones. People might consider this child to be ‘slow’ or ‘behind’. For example, a child may have less socialising and personal skills with a person who’s more talented.
Developmental Norms is usually referred to the age which a child progressing, this may not be something which is expected because every child takes time to develop their skills. For example a child might have a knowledge and understanding about a certain subject earlier than expected.
Developmental Milestones is when a progressing one stage to another they develop functional skills or have the ability to do something at a certain age range. For example at a child 12 months will start grasping onto things like furniture and 3 or 4 months later they might start walking.
Life Course is the time between birth and death, this includes infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. People will experience that as time goes on they get older and life gets shorter.
Maturation is when you are developing to be fully grown, also when a genetically programmed stage of development has occurred. They develop new skills in thinking and also increase levels in physical skills, different experiences allow a child to develop his or her potential. For example a child who is 2 years old will start to use more words and start listening to other of what is said.
Life expectancy is the length of time a person is expected to live.
Conception is the beginning of pregnancy, when the sperm cell from the father joins with the egg cell from the mother. Every month, at least one week after her last period a woman releases an egg; it then travels to the fallopian tube. If the intercourse is taken during the time an egg has been released from the ovary, then the egg has possibilities in meeting the sperm. If this does take place the egg will become fertilised by the sperm and a new life will start.
After fertilisation the single cell starts to divide after two or three days. There are enough cells now which travel to the uterus where it become one and is now called an embryo and it’s attached to the wall of the uterus by a placenta, The woman’s menstrual period are stopped. The embryo starts to grow after the eight week basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible, once the growing process as started it is known a foetus. Around 5 month the foetus has fully developed its body system and continues to grow in weight and height however physical growth occur a later stage in pregnancy.
Each pregnancy is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester will show physical and emotional developments
The three months in pregnancy are called the first trimester .Here, the woman will start to develop a change in body and also give indications for e.g. sickness symptoms, vomiting and nausea this can occur anytime in the day this will be due of woman who is pregnant missing her menstrual period and hormone levels increased.
Diet will be another impact on pregnancy what you eat will be changed due to staying healthy and eating correctly.
Months 4, 5 and 6 is the second trimester. This is considered to be known much better than the first trimester. Your body increases in size your breast enlarge further colostrums. You will start getting out of breath quickly because your heart is pumping harder. Also you will feel dizzy at times and get painful backaches which may lead you to sitting down at most times. Symptoms which might will need serious looking upon and medication may be needed is vaginal bleeding, hyper cervix, high fever blurred vision and swelling of face and hands. It is important routine tests and care should be provided by your doctor or nurse.
Months 7, 8 and 9 is the third trimester. The baby is now growing fast during this pregnancy period. The woman feels the movement of the baby however for the baby there’s not enough room the weight of the baby will now be 3 pounds. She also experiences mild craps and swelling of the feet, tiredness and might find it difficult to sleep at night .However this part of the pregnancy is exiting for the woman but also anxious of what’s going to happen.
When birth takes place of a newborn it’s called a neonate. The first stage is labour this is the completion of 9 months of the foetus in the womb. It would include contractions of the cervix. Here you could feel the contractions move and they can be strong pains. You then push down so this consists the cervix opening and the baby coming out. The second stage is giving birth and delivery. The head of the baby will be pushed out first because it’s the largest part of the body. At this stage the cervix is fully opened and the baby then comes out. This can take time for the baby to come out approx an hour or two only but little as 15 minutes.
The last stage is the delivery of the placenta gets tear through the blood vessel from the wall of the uterus. Once the placenta is out the blood vessel it starts, to close up, which prevents excessive bleeding. During labour she feels in pain and start to worry however this is natural during birth. The emotional changes for the mum are that she may go through tremendous levels in hormones levels. Mood swings are very common because she might not able to control them. Your self image might put you down because during pregnancy she may begin to feel strange or disappointed. The social changes would be staying motivated them with their baby and their social life. They might consider trying to be a positive role model for the child, nurturing them and providing their needs.
Infancy (0-3 years)
Infants develop rapidly during the first three years; they are born with a number of physical reflexes. One reflex is the root reflex which is when the baby turns its head in the direction of the head, enabling it to find the nipple of its mother’s breast to get fed. The second reflex is startle reflex this is when a baby throws out its arms and leg to a sudden noise made. The walking reflex is when a baby is held with its feet touching the ground and its legs will make move to the direction as if they were walking. Another is the grasp reflex this is when a baby will grasp onto an object placed in the hand and hold it tightly.
Infants learn to control their muscles and movements which are mainly in the legs and arms which are gross motor skills. These may include an infant whose six to eight month start to crawl and they may sit alone on a sofa with great balance. Within 2 years old a baby can kick a ball.
Language development is also starting to develop at this age they make the ability to understand. It develops throughout they’re physical development this may be getting excited making noises and opening up their voices, by the end of one month the infant may start to babble and words may start to sound like this’ mamma’ or ‘dada’ .
According to Piaget, language development is related to cognitive development, that is, the development of the child’s determines when the child can learn to speak and what the child can say. For example, before a child can say, “This car is bigger than that one”, she/he must have developed the ability to judge differences in size.
Attachment is starts from conception it’s shown when there’s an emotional bond between a baby and its career (mother or nursery assistant).An infant will take slowly to develop attachment towards a person so for example children under six months will not have formed a strong attachment with the career and they will unlikely show signs of distress. Months 6 to 3 years children will cope with separation as long they are provided with good care (something to play with) and they show signs of distress when they leave their career.
It is believed that John Bowlby who looked upon attachment said that children needed to have a strong relationship with its career (mother, father or someone who’s in care for help) he also believed that children who had been separated from their parents are more like to suffer physiological problems later on in life.
Children who are securely attached to their mother or caregiver become upset if left alone. This can lead them to cry and be upset however they would always receive comfort from the caregiver.
Parents who have a strong attachment tend to have a long-term relationship, they have the trust and also seek help from people. Mary Ainsworth said that’ a lack of quality attachment affects relationship later in life.
Childhood (4-9 years)
Children growth physically has slowed down a bit compared to infancy. Gross motor skills develop and use muscles widely for e.g. running, hopping or running.
Social and emotionally children started to feel more open and are aware of thing, they start making understanding relations for e.g. making friends. The language development: children start speaking more fluently they develop the ability to use grammar and vocabulary will continue to improve. The social development during childhood is when responding to a person which is trying to socialize with them. They might be influenced by role models so they will be tried to act like a certain person or copy them. They get close to family and friends who might consider them throwing a lot of questions at them, and dressing or talking likes their friends. Intellectually children would know simple questions such as counting to ten, or saying first and last names. They also would think logically and develop the ability to understand. They understand that other people hold feelings and have their own opinions.
Puberty is when there is a human development of physical growth and maturation occurs. The physical development of a female develops the age of 11 to 13 girls usually grow body hair, periods start, breast develop, gain weight and shape of body changes. Males start puberty later this is often between 13 to 15 years, the gain weight, grow body hair, penis and testicles develop also the voice breaks.
Emotionally hormones may be out of balance and this can lead to mood swings or aggressive behavior. Also peer pressure can be something common lack of confidence and low esteem can be a problem at this age.
Socially they become independent of their families and more dependent on their peer group. They explore and experience man things for example having relationships and sexual behavior with others.
Intellectually the learn more about themselves example going through puberty and also learn various thing which can be driving, going to school or college and making decisions about their career. Secondary socialisation starts outside the home and the family, for e.g. at school. The development of ways of thinking and behaving, which in turn help shape self-concept and build self-confidence and self-esteem. Also Secondary socialisation continues throughout life, causing people’s values, beliefs and behaviours to change as they mature and grow older. This is when you’re learning at outside the home and is the way we behave to specific certain situations or purposes. For example at school they require very different behaviour from the home, also rules are set at school which children will need to follow this also implies to teachers so they are aware of the way children should act and behave.
The language development in adolescence there’s more understanding and acknowledgement about certain topics they talk about. There’s more depth and there’s a developed career option in the future. They use a wider range of vocabulary and
Adulthood is when you’re fully grown and also fully developed also you having overcome maturity. Physically development in adults ages 18 and 28 have a high-energy levels they become active and aware of certain aspects about health in the upcoming years. As people enter their 40s eyesight may start to deteriorate, skin loses elasticity so wrinkles appear and also woman stop having their period the age of 45 and reach menopause. Intellectually some adulthood will have finished college and university and consider themselves having a job and live independently. Keeping busy and motivated could also be in an adulthood life for example reading newspaper to keep them updated about the world, watching TV or going to the gym to stay fit and healthy for the future. Emotionally some adults will have relationships (married) and this can affect them because they have the responsibility to look after one another and will be courage by family to do various things.
Also at this stage adults will be socializing more and feeling more comfortable with people around them for example going to the pub to socialize.
Menopause is the last stage of a woman mistral cycle. A woman’s period do not usually stop suddenly, some just get missed frequently (Class work 2010) the physical symptom which may occur is hot sweats which may cause the woman fell very hot during the day and they may need a fan or open windows to keep them cool, night sweats could be when the woman wakes up several times at night because she’s feeling humid this may drench your bedding but also put disturb the sleep of your partner, dry vagina is when the skin losses moisture but also this will make it difficult and loose interest for the woman to have sexual intercourse because of the decrease in hormones and also sleep problems may be vary due to not going sleep or feeling uncomfortable. Emotionally this will affect the woman with menopause because she will be having mood swings which can include depression and irradiation. Also a woman aged around late 40s will be pressurized by family who are needed to be looked after; going to work will be difficult because the woman may start having the symptoms which can become annoying whilst working.
However the positive affect on this may be that some woman’s may enjoy sex more after the menopause because they will be free-minded about not getting pregnant and this could increase there self confidence. Hormone Replace Treatment can help you with the treatment of menopause. Some woman’s may be in serious pain where they will be consulted to their GP; the GP will provide some information on the symptoms but also give medicines.
Physical development in an older adulthood occurs when the skin becomes thinner and less elastic, bones become weak and more likely to break, hearing and sight deteriorate, and muscles become weaker which may lead to an older adulthood not able to do active things. Intellectually older adulthoods will need help whilst gaining skills or doing something active and they may forget thinks quickly due to the age. Emotionally older adulthood have many health problems which might leave them in pain most of the time. Some old adults may be stereotyped in care setting which can affect their self esteem and confidence. The death of their partner or family member can leave older people feeling emotionally isolated. Retirement can affect them as they don’t have anything to do and are feeling depressed and unmotivated.
Socially older adults may be put in a care home where they interact with people and make new friends however some may be left alone due to health problems and impairments.