Designand Financial Analysis of Grid Tied PV System for a Small Area Premise UsingPVsyst SoftwareM.S.Rahaman1, K.K.
Borman1, M.E Hossain1, K.C.
Ray11Departmentof Electronics & Communication Engineering, HajeeMohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Dinajpur, BangladeshAbstractTo reduce pressure of the buring fussial fuel to generateelectricity, solar energy is best alternating source to produce electricity.Solar energy is alo safe for environment. The main aim ofthis paper is to design, financial analyses of a grid connected system and toreduce CO2 emission. We analyzed different parameters of a solarsystem and proposed an 80 KW rooftop solar plant which satisfy our need demandof electricity for an administrative building of HSTU. The proposed plantproduced annual 148.5 MW electricity and annual reduction of 1819.
170 tons ofcarbon footprint. The performance of the plant is measured by PVsyst software.From PVsyst software simulation we found that, the system not only satisfy ourannual need demand of 68.8 MW but also we will be sold annual 79.
7 MWelectricity to the grid. Keyword:PVsyst, simulation, PV system, HSTU, CO2 emission.1.INTRODUCTIONMen have been habituated to burnfossil fuels to generate energy from long time ago. It has become an alarmingproblem that climate has been changed day by day due to increasing use of thefossil fuels.
Burning coal, petroleum and other fossil fuelsis used to produce electricity, but which pollutes two vital elements like airand water in our environment. Renewalenergy is alternating source to produce energy and it do not any bad impact toenvironment and keep safe of our environment. With a population of 166.37million, Bangladesh is a one of the most densely populated country a. Rapid urbanization fueled bystable economic growth has created a huge demand of energy. In Bangladesh, theelectricity comes from burning gas or fuel.
Theutility electricity sector in Bangladesh has one National Grid with aninstalled capacity of 15,379 MW as on February’ 2017 b. The Governmentof Bangladesh has planned to increase power generation and the demand forelectricity in Bangladesh is projected to reach 34,000 MW by 2030.There is anambitious target to generate 2000 MW of renewable energy electricity by 2021and whose at least 10% would be met from renewable sources including solarpower system c.
For this purpose, the government is currently working toinstall solar panel-based power projects connected with the national grid,which will have a 572 MW capacity d. From the statistics of solar system usein the country we assume that 1000 MW energy might be come from solar system tomeet the 2000 MW renewable energy target. There is an urgent need to employrenewable energy in every possible form and move toward the sustainable energysector. Photovoltaic system isone of the most important and premising technology that are able to produce theelectricity to meet the electricity demand of the whole world e. Since lastdecade, the photovoltaic industry grows more than 40% per year due to decreasein cost of PV system f. There are two effective systems for solarphotovoltaic plant design.
One is stand-alone system and other is gridconnected system. Karki et al. have done an analysis for grid connected PVsystem in Kathmandu and Berlin by using PVsyst software g. In the simulationit is found that Kathmandu is able to produce more solar energy than Berlinwith the same system.
Irwan et al. have done a study to analyze for a 150kWsolar power plant h. In the study it found that Cyprus has a high number ofsunny days in a year so investment of the solar plant is very effective. Shuklaet al. i performed the design and analysis of rooftop solar PV system forHostel building at MANIT, and determined the payback period of 8.2 years.Raturi et al.
j studied the grid connected PV system for Pacific islandcountries in case study of 45 kWp GCPV system located at the University of theSouth Pacific (USP) marine campus in Fiji. Further, Dawn et al. k showed therecent developments of India in the solar sector. Matiyali et al. l evaluated theperformance of a proposed 400 KW grid connected solar PV plant at Dhalipur andthey calculated server types of power loss and performance ratio of the PVsystem.Value of the performance ratio obtained was 78.
1% from the resultspracticality of the solar photovoltaic power plant was discussed. From literature review, we found that PVsyst software is oneof the best software for simulation of sizing, optimizing, loss analysis andfinancial analyses of a grid connected photovoltaic system m. In thispaper we calculated financial analyses and did a simulation with PVsyst V6.43 software. Proper sizing and calculation of grid connected PVsystem is done for the administrative building of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science& Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. In most of the previousresearch studies, we found that research has mainly been done in sizing andoptimizing of solar systems but cost analysis is not carried out. Thus thisresearch is aimed at fulfilling the research gap which is missing in previousstudies. 2.
METHODOLOGY2.1 Geographical location of the siteHajee Mohammad DaneshScience & Technology University located in Dinajpur, Bangladesh. It lies on25.70º N. latitude and 88.65º Elongitude on the eastern bank of the river Punarbhaba and 42 meter abovesea level n.
The total area of the campus is 85 acres. The entire campusconsists of administrative and academic building, library, residentialaccommodation for students and staff. The rooftop area of the administrativebuilding is 1200 m2. Figure 1; show how the sun impacts in thelocation of building throughout the year. X axis show solar azimuth. Azimuth isthe angular distance between the south direction and the direction where thepanels are facing.
Y axis show sun height that means how high sun in the sky inrelation to horizon. In summer the sun height is highest at 88º which occurs atthe June solstice on the 22nd June and lowest height of the sun is37º on 22nd December.2.2 Collection of irradiation dataSolar irradiation isthe amount of radiation which is received from the sun at the top of the globe’satmosphere o. This irradiation data varies with the season and weathercondition of a day in year. The monthly data of solar irradiation was collectedfrom PVsyst software.
Table 1, shows the monthly metrological data which wascollected for the plant. 2.3 Design ofthe proposed systemThis section covers thesignificant aspects of the design and simulation of the PV system.
Thedifferent components of the solar PV plant are shown in Figure b. In proposedplant model, Solar PV panel is an electrical device which absorbs sun light andconverts it into electricity. The produced energy is direct current (DC) andthe energy pass through the inverter.
The inverter converts the energy from DCto AC. Then the energy will be supplied to the user. If the supplied energy isexceeded than the user need, the exceeded energy goes to the grid. In badweather, the grid supplies it to the user.2.3.
1 Layout of plant:Total roof area of the building is 1200m2. The selected panel forthe plant is 320 W, needed module area is 492 m2. The distancebetween each panel is 0.5. So, the ground coverage ratio (GRC) is 0.5. The mapof area shown in figure 3.
Land area calculation:Land area = Module area/ GRC = 492 / 0.5 = 984 m22.3.2 Tilt angle: Thetilt angle for the proposed PV plant is 30º because the produced energy ishighest at 30º tilt angle. Fig 5 shows, at 0º tilt angle the produced energy is114 MWh per year and the produced energy is increased with the increase of tiltangle. When tilt angle is 30º, the produced energy is highest which is 128 MWh/year.
After 30º tilt angle, the produced energy is decreased with the increaseof tilt angle.2.3.
3 Solar PV module:There are different types of solar module available in the market. For thelarge-scale plant, polycrystalline modules are commonly used. For the proposedmodel, we used polycrystalline based REC 320PE 72 modules for simulation. Thearray global power is 96 kWp at STC and 96.1 kWp at operating condition (25ºC).
Array operating characteristics (50ºC) are Umpp 378 V and Impp 254 A.Degradation rate of the REC panel is taken to 0.7%/year p. The parameters of proposed module are givenin the table b.2.3.4 Inverter: Aninverter is a device which converts DC power to AC power.
It is very importantto meet the inverter specification with the PV specification which runs thesystem properly. Two number of inverter are used to the proposed plant whichrating is 33 kW. The manufacturer corporation is AEG Power Solutions GmbH,having a model – Protect-PV 33. The inverter has operating voltage 300-800 V andthe unit nominal power is 33.0 kW. There are 2 units of inverter to be installedand the power capacity is 66 kW. The parameters of proposed inverter are givenin the table c.3.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION3.1 Plant configuration:For appropriate sizingof grid connected system, the proposed model was designed by PVsyst softwaresimulation. The panels were connected in series with 14 modules and 18 stringsin parallel. Therefore, total numbers of modules were 322. The required totalmodule areas were 492 m2 for panel. Total cell area was 442 m2,this is the area where the solar radiation absorbed. At the maximum powercurrent of the system will be about 152 A.
The total capacity of two inverterhad 66 kW which was used for the proposed model.The output of the PVsystem depends upon the received solar radiation and temperature q. Figure dshows the array voltage-current diagram of the photovoltaic module.
The maximumpower point voltage will be 460 V at the 60ºC temperature whereas the maximumpower point voltage will be 570 V at the 20ºC temperature.3.2 Need demand From the analyses, itfound that user need average 343 KWh per day.
Table d shows daily averagedemand of energy is 670325 MW in the March, April, May, Jun, July, August,September, October of a year. In November, December, January and February, thedemand of energy is comparatively lower than the other month of a year which is93596 MW. Figure e illustrates the daily peak hour 9 to 11 AM where the maximumload occurs.So, annual demand ofthe user is 125 MWh per year. From table c, it observed that the maximum energysupply to the user is in the month of March, which is 8.633 MWh.
The minimumsupply to the user is in the month of February, which is 1.828 MWh whereas themaximum energy injected to the grid in the month of November, which is 11.01MWh.
System specificationØ Systemproduced energy: 127.9 MWh/yearØ Specificproduction :1586 kWh/yearØ Performanceratio (PR) :80.0%Ø SolarFraction (SF): 48.3% As we can see in figuref, normalized energy, i.e. kWh/kWp/day is shown per month.
The collectionlosses of PV array are 0.79 kWh per day and system losses per day is 0.29kWh/kWp. The average of actual produced energy per day is 4.34 kWh/kWp. Theaverage value of the produced energy per month is found to be minimum in themonth of July, which goes as low as 3.5 kWh/kWp, this is because of naturaldisaster such as rain, cloud weather but this month losses are minimum. Themaximum produced energy in the month is March and November which goes up to 4.
5kWh/kWp.In the system, theaverage performance ratio is 0.801, i.e. 80.
1% which shown in the figure g. Thevariation in performance ratio is very negligible, but lower performance isobserved in the month of May which is less than 65% .3.3 Loss diagram overthe whole yearIt is impossibleto covert 100% energy received from the solar radiation because of various losses.
Figure h represents detailed losses occurred in the proposed model. It observedthat the net electricity production is around 127.9 MWh/year and the systemdoes not supply completely to load or to grid. This is because, the softwareassumes that total load is distributed for every hour of the day for a completemonth and solar energy is not available for 24 h a day r. Around 67.
3 MWh issupplied to the grid and around 60.5 MWh to the user, while it takes 64.8 MWhfrom the grid. 3.
4 Economic analysis3.4.1 Cost calculation: For proposed model of theplant, cost calculation is very important. For the plant, we have calculatedthe approximate cost in Bangladesh.
Table e shows approximate cost of PVcomponents. Ø Modulecost: 252 units modules with 320 W/module and 50 TK per Watt cost.=(252*320*50) TK =4032000 TKØ Invertercost: 2 units inverter with 33 KW and 35 TK per Watt cost.= (2*33*1000*35) TK = 2310000 TKØ Supportingcost: (Inverter + Module) * 10%= (4032000 + 2310000) * 10%= 6342100 TK Maintenance cost: Tablef shows that first 5 years the maintenance cost is very low because first 5-yearmaintenance cost is needed for cleaning the panel.
After 5-year maintenance costis increased which shows in figure i.Payback Analysis:Yearly saving=localenergy cost per unit * system production = 7.57 TK * (127.9 * 1000) KWh = 968203 TKNet yearly saving =yearly saving – yearly maintenance cost = (968203– 68494) TK =899709 TKPayback period=net ininvestment (including tax) / yearly saving = 8387295 / 899709 = 9.3 YearProfit = 25 -9.3 Year =15.7 YearFrom the analyses, wefound that the plant produced energy is 127.
9 MWh/year, out of which 67.3 MWh/yearwill be sold to the grid. The total yearly cost will be coming out to be around403986TK/year,with net investment including taxes (15%) will around 8387295TK/year.After sold energy, the cost of produced energy will be coming out to be 3.16TK/kWh. Cost analyses using PVsyst software shown in figure j. 3.
5 CO2 reductionWith lowercarbon emissions, the adoption of renewable energy technology can help reduceglobal warming s-t. Solar PV GHG emissions are dueto the energy spent during the manufacturing of the panels us. CO2 reduction using PVsyst softwareshown in figure k. Calculation of carbon balance is as follows:Carbon balance = (Egrid * life of plant * LCEgrid)- LCEsystem = (127.9 MWh*25* 584 gCO2/kWh)-176.1 tCO2 =1541.940 tons 4.CONCLUSIONNow a day, electricitygeneration has become a major challenge for a country.
This design of the plantis performed with the help of the PVsyst software. By the help of the PVsystemsoftware, output of the needed electricity, financial analyses and systemlosses are configured. The whole study is focused to design and financialanalysis of grid tied photovoltaic system for small area. In the proposedsystem, 252 units module and 2 units inverter are produced 127.9 MW electricitywhich satisfy our need demand. Performance ratio of the system is 80.1%. Infinancial analyses, we found that institute can not only satisfy the needdemand but also earn profit to sell excess electricity.
This plant will be ableto reduce 1541.9 tones CO2 in its lifetime of 25years. This proposedplant is ideal to institute as well as contribute of Bangladesh Governmenttarget of generate 2000 MW of renewable energyelectricity by 2021. Tables: Table1: Metrological data for HSTU admin building. Table 2: Solar PV module specification.
Specification Parameter Module Name REC 320PE 72 Used Technology REC Open Circuit Voltage 46.10 V Short Circuit Current 8.990 A Maximum Current 8.450 A Maximum Voltage 37.90 V Table 3: Solar Inverter module specification. Specification Parameter Inverter Name Protect-PV 30 Used Technology AEG Power Solutions GmbH Minimum MPPT Voltage 300 V Minimum Voltage for PNom 270 V Maximum MPPT Voltage 800 V Absolute max.
PV Voltage 800 V Power Threshold 165 W Table 4: Monthly user needed energy and total annualbalance.November,December, January, February Use 5 days a week Number power Use Energy Lamp(LED) PC Fridge Pump 100 20 5 1 70 W/lamp 120 W/app 0.80 KWh/day 2500 W tot 9 h/day 9 h/day 24 Wh/day 2 h/day 63000 Wh/day 21600 Wh/day 3996 Wh/day 5000 Wh/day Total daily energy 93596 Wh/day March,April, May, Jun, July, August, September, October Use 5 days a week Number power Use Energy Lamp(LED) PC Fan Fridge Pump Ac Exhaust Fan 100 20 79 5 1 16 7 70 W/lamp 120 W/app 80 W/app 0.80 KWh/day 2500 W tot 3600 W tot 23 W tot 9 h/day 9 h/day 9 h/day 24 Wh/day 2 h/day 9 h/day 9 h/day 63000 Wh/day 21600 Wh/day 56880 Wh/day 3996 Wh/day 5000 Wh/day 518400 Wh/day 1449 Wh/day Total daily energy 670325 Wh/day Table 5: Approximate cost of PV component. Component Description Quantity Cost(TK) Module 252 4032000 Inverter 2 2310000 Supporting 10% of module and inverter cost 6342100 Wiring 5% of module and inverter cost 317100 Maintenance Over 25 year 1712340 Total cost 9005640 Table 6: Yearly maintenance cost. Year 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 Cost (%) 1% 3% 5% 8% 10% Figures: Figure1: Sun path for HSTU administrative building. Figure 2: Blockdiagram of the plant system. Figure3: Satellite view of HSTU administrative building.
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