Data Management PlanResearcher Name: Researcher Contact: Project Name: Autonomous Weapon systems under international law Project Identifier (If Applicable):  1.  Data SummaryAutonomous weapons is the widely accepted umbrella term that includes various, often remarkably sophisticated 21st century technological advances that have dramatically altered modern warfare.

Robotic ground vehicles and fully automated missile platforms are part of the rapidly emerging autonomous weapons systems (AWS) that prompt the legal, ethical, and broader human rights concerns identified and explained in this proposed dissertation. Accepted international law principles, including the rights of self-defence (jus ad bellum) and military response proportionality, that have also influenced modern day international humanitarian law evolution (IHL, laws of armed conflict (jus in bello)) must be carefully re-examined in light of how AWS fundamentally alters how war can be wagedThe proposed research aims to explore the different perspectives which autonomous weapon systems under international law are viewed in different circumstances. This study will focus on how socio-legal and doctrinaire “black letter law” approaches provide deeper insights regarding AWS. The research will also examine deeply the pros and cons that come with autonomous weapon systems. It is the objective of this research to provide a comprehensive study on autonomous weapon systems under international law and to examine how effective these laws are in ensuring the safety of civilians and eliminating one party from having the upper hand during war.In order to achieve that aim, this research will address the following sub-objectives.

·         Explore the legal status of autonomous weapon systems and jus ad bellum which governs use of force between states. Any resort to armed force on the territory of a foreign state, without its express consent1 Article 2(4) of the UN Charter.·         Investigate the conditions for implementation of the right of self-defence under Article 51 of the UN Charter2.

·         Explore the legal status of use of autonomous weapon systems by law enforcement on its citizens.·         Investigate the conditions appropriate for use of firearms by law enforcement and the type of firearms allowed.·         Identify the outlined procedures in international law for use of autonomous weapon systems when in armed conflict with hostilities·         Explore the rule of distinction and the rule of proportionality in attack, their limitations, advantages and ability to preserve civilian life.·         Explore in depth the legal reviews of autonomous weapon systems  The research will the offer a conclusion of its findings regarding autonomous weapon systems and international law. The data collected is variable and may include numbers, words, measurements, observations or description of things. The collection of data in this research consists of primary and secondary sources of international law, questionnaires, publications, journals and other academic sources.

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The library, online and electronic archives, examining current cases, treaties and agreements dealing with autonomous weapon systems and examining national policies of the countries who have autonomous weapon systems.The dissertation question can be reasonably approached using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methodologies. This general methodological summary also includes the following research approaches, ones that are particularly appropriate given the IHL and IHRL points identified in the Background. Examining this topic from different perspectives will yield better research results. For example, contrasting how socio-legal and doctrinaire (‘black letter law’) approaches possibly provide deeper insights regarding AWS is an important matter in planning the intended research that builds on the indicative sources cited in the current Bibliography. In this rapidly advancing, technology driven international law sphere, one may readily appreciate that personal interviews, questionnaires, AWS device testing, or similar evidence gathering might yield excellent research sources, and make valuable contributions to the current scholarship.

 These undoubtedly useful quantitative methods’ avenues are not proposed in this work for two reasons: (i) cost, as devising, building and executing the data gathering processes noted above carries significant expense to be done well: (ii) the wealth of important primary source materials (particularly current international law instruments and cases), combined with a diverse, ever-expanding, high level scholarship that can be mined for excellent AWS-related IHL materials, on which cogent dissertation recommendations and conclusions can be crafted. For these two reasons, a qualitative methodology is suggested as better suited to advance this project. The only significant qualitative research challenge identified at this Proposal stage is selecting the best sources from a large, rapidly expanding literature, as over 100 peer reviewed articles have been published on various AWS – IHL issues and ramifications since 2014. 2.  Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (FAIR) Dataa.      Making data findable, including provisions for metadata:In order to make data findable metadata will include the following information·         Title , abstract, author and keywords·         The table of contents and list of figures·         How the pages are ordered  to form chapters·         The date of creation and the method of creation·         File type and its accessibilityThe data in this research is generally descriptive and thus descriptive metadata will be used. All data and associated metadata will be deposited in PURE.All the data to be collected in this project is not within the scope of copyright restrictions and I want to make it publicly accessible by anyone.

To make the data reusable I will apply the public domain dedication licence which makes all my data accessible to the public. This will enhance reuse and improvement of my work by others.   Quality control of the research data will include the following stages.·         Taking data from multiple sources and comparing it to ensure credibility·         Confirming the truth of a source with an expert·         Checking data completeness and its references·         Cross-checking with my peers   3.  Data Storage and SecurityThe equipment to be used for the research will be properly secure with a password.

These include:·         my personal laptop·         my removable USB flash drive·         An external hard drive for back up·         All files on the research will be protected with a password on the university U-Drive, my Flash Drive, computer and external hard drive.                            My files will also be stored on cloud platforms to ensure it is safe from destruction, corruption or los . The platforms I will use are Dropbox and google drive.

I will then share links to the data with my supervisor during the course of research.My research data will be in textual format and saved in both open and protected word and pdf documents.  The data will include notes, publications, journals, academic papers and excerpts from cases and other related sources.

My research data will be shared at conferences and published in journals.  4.  Ethical AspectsAll data I aim to collect is under no copyright law and is accessible to the general public either online or in print.I will strive to ensure I check all my sources for copyrights.

I will therefore expect no legal or ethical restrictions on the data during the research.