D-Day-June 6, 1944 – Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II. Winston Churchill – Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II. Stalingrad – Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany’s advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
Tehran Conference – December, 1943 – A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war’s conclusion to help ensure international peace. Okinawa – The U. S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an “island-hopping” campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands.
By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U. S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000. Battle of the Bulge – December, 1944-January, 1945 – After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile “bulge” into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses. Manhattan Project – A secret U. S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Hiroshima, Nagasaki – First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945. Yalta Conference – February, 1945 – Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France.
Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) – He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) – After Lenin died in 1924, he defeated Trotsky to gain power in the U. S. S. R.
He created consecutive five year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U. S. S. R. until his death. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) – German fascist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator. Blitzkrieg – series of “lightning campaigns” to conquer. Tojo (Hideki) – Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
Lend lease Act – Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment to any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U. S. Allowed the U. S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
Atlantic Charter – August 1941 – Drawn up by FDR and Churchill with eight main principles: • Renunciation of territorial aggression • No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned • Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government • Access to raw material for all nations World economic cooperation • Freedom from fear and want • Freedom of the seas • Disarmament of aggressors Pearl Harbor – 7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 – Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U. S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U. S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U. S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Executive Order 9066 – moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U. S. into internment camps in the interior of the U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969) – Served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U. S. commander in Europe. General Douglas MacArthur – Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Received the Medal of Honor. Final Solution – Hitler’s “Final Solution” was the genocide of non-Aryan peoples.
Second front – The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a “second front” in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay. Manchuria 1931 – The Japanese invasion of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan, beginning on September 19, 1931, immediately followed the Mukden Incident. The Japanese occupation of Manchuria lasted until the end of World War II. Spanish Civil War (1936-1935) – Spain had established a leftist, democratic government in the 1930s.
In July, 1936, Gen. Francisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco’s Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler). Mussolini (1883-1945) – Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire. Ethiopia – Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U. S. just looked on.
Quarantine Speech – 1937 – In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist aggression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine aggressor nations. Munich Conference-1938 – Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitants were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war. Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg – September, 1939 – Germany used series of “lightning campaigns” to conquer Poland.
The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany. Axis and Allied Powers – A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the “Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. ” The countries were thereafter referred to as the Axis Powers. The Allies consisted of France, Great Britain and later on the U. S. and Italy. Cash and Carry Policy – Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U. S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefited the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U. S. due to the Allied blockades.
America First Committee 1940 – Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U. S. going to war. Nonaggression Pact – August 23, 1939 – Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland to Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact. The Office of Price Administration – was established within the Office for Emergency Management of the United States Government by Executive Order 8875 on August 28, 1941.
The functions of the OPA were originally to control prices and rents after the outbreak of World War II. The Battle of Midway – is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Between 4 and 7 June 1942, approximately one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea and six months after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet. Military historian John Keegan has called it “the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare. Truman – Won the election of 1948. Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 – “Pact of Paris” or “Treaty for the Renunciation of War,” it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless. North African campaign – Allies made plans to attack North Africa instead. Axis forces there were in control of Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox”. Allies drove Germany out of North Africa in May 1943. Significant: because it gives us experience and battle practice.
November 1942= El Aleman British protect Suez Canal. November 8, 1942: Allies land in Morocco (under Eisenhower) George Patton May 1943: Drive Germans out of North Africa. Korematsu vs. United States – 1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor. Geneva – Convention international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limit its effects.
Neutrality Acts 1936 and 1937 – stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist FDR – Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection.
FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget. Good Neighbor Policy – Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a “good neighbor. ” The phrase came to be used to describe the U. S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt’s “Good Neighbor Policy,” the U. S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations. Hawes–Cutting Act – the first law setting a specific date for Philippine independence from the United States. War Production Board – Converted factories from civilian to military production.
Manufacturing output tripled. Rosie the Riveter – Symbolic personification of female laborers who took factory jobs in order to sustain U. S. production during WWII. Hirohito – Japanese emperor who was allowed to stay on his throne despite unconditional surrender policy. Admiral Nimitz – blocked the Japanese attempt to conquer a strategic island near Hawaii. Rhineland – In March 1936, Hitler took what for him was a huge gamble – he ordered that his troops should openly re-enter the Rhineland thus breaking the terms of Versailles once again.
He did order his generals that the military should retreat out of the Rhineland if the French showed the slightest hint of making a military stand against him. This did not occur. Over 32,000 soldiers and armed policemen crossed into the Rhineland. The Tydings-McDuffie Act – approved on March 24, 1934 was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence after a period of ten years. Anschluss – was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938. El Alimein – Two important World War II battles were fought in the area.
At the First Battle of El Alamein (July 1 – July 27, 1942) the advance of Axis troops on Alexandria was blunted by the Allies, when the German Panzers tried to outflank the allied position. At the Second Battle of El Alamein (October 23 – November 4, 1942) Allied forces broke the Axis line and forced them all the way back to Tunisia. The Office of War Mobilization – was an independent agency of the United States government headed by Former Supreme Court Justice James F. Byrnes that coordinated all government agencies involved in the war effort during World War II.
This office took over from the earlier War Production Board to shift the country from a peacetime to a wartime economy, sometimes loaning smaller factories the money needed to convert to war production. War Labor Disputes Act – was an American law passed on June 25, 1943, over President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s veto. The legislation was hurriedly created after 400,000 coal miners, their wages significantly lowered due to high wartime inflation, struck for a $2-a-day wage increase. Vichy France – France that allied with the Axis Powers for industrial purposes from July 1940 to August 1944.
General Patton – During the buildup of the United States Army prior to its entry into World War II, Patton commanded the 2nd Armored Division, which performed with mixed results in 1941 in both the Louisiana Maneuvers and Carolina Maneuvers. Dunkirk – The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo by the British, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and harbor of Dunkirk, France, between 26 May and the early hours of 3 June 1940, when British, French and Belgian troops were cut off by the German army during the Battle of Dunkirk in the Second World War.