and change are the two most important elements in foreign policy. Continuity
has an identity when it keeps a state’s foreign policy at a certain level. When
your continuity can not provide the state’s foreign policy, change has to
participate in foreign policy. It is difficult to get used to change, but
changes in foreign policy are an inevitable opportunity to keep up with the
world and to deal with the outside world.
country has a foreign policy. Foreign policy encompasses relations with other
countries and is carried out by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in each
country. With respect to neighbors and other world states, the princes from
which the princes will remain bound to national aims may change, but the basic
principles do not change much. Under the United Nations, where the world states
still speak about world affairs, the emissaries voices the views of the
countries and remains committed to the same principles when voting. While
preparing a nation’s foreign policy, it considers the national interests of the
nation, the internal and external environment, national values, foreign policy
goals and decisions of other nations and the nature of international power
structure. They constitute the elements / elements of Foreign Policy.
the world is divided into blocks (Western Bloc, European Union, NATO, Russia –
China – Iran alliance etc.), countries take a global position in their foreign
policy by entering into alliances with this or this country group. However,
these country groups are not separated by very strict boundaries. A country may
be a member of the European Union, but at the same time there may be closer
relations with China, Russia or the United States than others. For example,
Turkey is a NATO member. He is in full membership negotiations with the EU, but
he is in good relations with Russia. Good relations with Iran are also in the
effort to execute. In some cases, countries may follow a more independent line
of disagreement within alliance groups. For example, while the UK was a member
of the European Union, he made a referendum in his country and decided to
leave. Not every European country is a member of the European Union. This is
not a situation to be compulsory anyway. Countries can participate or leave by
of these elements are; Geographical
factors, The dimension of the state, Regional Security Circles.
The dimension of
the state have
the chance to become great powers in international relations. (Such as
America-China-Russia). There is also great competition for world leadership.
The strongest state in every age plays this role. The US is considered the most
powerful state in the world with its large economy and military power. In many
countries of the world, there are bases and seas. But now China is rapidly
expanding its economy. Capital strength, influence is increasing. China is also
a country that is recognized as a leader. Again, Russia is acting like a rival
of the United States. They also want to gain great power in the world at the
same time. But the size of the state alone is not enough to be a great power
and an effective force in foreign policy. Regionally, Germany is the most
powerful country in the European Union. Turkey’s most powerful country in the
Middle East. And he is playing an increasingly active role in world affairs.
What to say in the district affairs, what to do is watched carefully by other
countries. In the Arab world, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are among the influential
countries. For example; The Middle Eastern countries, although small in size,
play a very active role in international relations, which is the largest source
of oil. Japan is a relatively small state, and its role in international
relations is active and influential.
Geographical Factor has many positive and negative
impact on Turkey. However in my opinion this factor is very important elements
on Turkish Foreign Policy.
located between the geopolitical and geostrategic position between East and
West because of many important geography (Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, North
Africa, Black Sea) stays in the middle.
position gives a very special position peculiar to Turkey. This position is
used today as an advantage in terms of energy policies and transportation
projects. However, this line of migration on board and be an unstable region,
it also comes also become a source of major risk for Turkey. No doubt Turkey is
experiencing today become synonymous case of any terrorist incidents that come
to mind. It is one of the countries where the terrorist incidents are most
common in the world and hosts the most immigrant populations. This is because
the location is located between the West and the East. Turkey’s geopolitical
position is destiny. Turkey came forward with international assistance and
support in the world’s most developed and richest countries to be more
generous. In the refugee crisis, he took on a responsibility collecting the
appreciation of the world. 3.5 million Syrians did not hesitate to go under
such a great burden of hosting them on their land.
neighbors is an integral part of the geography and Turkey are to the source of
many problems in terms. Iran, Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Greece, Bulgaria and
Cyprus, and even when neighboring Russia by sea, are the countries where the
problems experienced by Turkey’s situation. With Azerbaijan and Georgia, is
owned neighboring Romania and Ukraine by sea, by far Turkey’s neighbors are
numbered almost seamless relationship can be established. If we look
objectively, Turkey becomes a serious problem with many neighboring Turkey in
the past has led to different alliance quest.
the geographical point of view the most important feature is that Turkey has
control of the Strait. Straits, defense extremely difficult and not only
Turkey’s security is also very important in terms of international security.
Therefore, the 1st Army was located here in the past and the status of the
Bosphorus has led to serious crisis between Turkey and Russia.
in world affairs, formerly of “peace at home peace in the world” was
moved by principle. In foreign policy, one side would give a favorable opinion,
but it would not be much involved in the events. There was a softer power
policy. It was part of the Western alliance as a NATO member. It is a national
goal to enter the European Union. The Turkish republics and the fraternity
policy were good. He also watched hard politics in Cyprus, where necessary, to
intervene. Recently there have been changes in these policies. But this was the
reason why world conditions changed. The fraternity policy with Turkish
republics continues. The resolute policy as a guarantor state continues in
Cyprus. But divisions pitted against many countries in the Middle East,
fragmentation, because the invasions happened, Turkey abandoned its former
policy of non-interference with respect to this region. The conditions did not
allow for a different policy anyway.
Iraq, the policy followed in other countries will send troops to Syria, weapons
that will send up hot, because Turkey has become simply impossible to follow
tough policies suffices to explain opinions. In Iraq, the pressure of the
Turkmen in Syria necessitated a more active policy.
we briefly summarize what happened in Cypriot operation case;
Peace Operation, 20 July 1974 State of the Republic of Turkey on the name of
the military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces. Military in the
eastern Mediterranean in the historical process, geopolitical and strategic
importance of Cyprus to the fore, is the most sensitive point in the foreign policy
of the Republic of Turkey. Cyprus, the third largest island of the
Mediterranean, passed into Ottoman rule in 1571 and continued its dominance
until 1878. The administration of Cyprus was temporarily settled in England in
1878. Britain dominated Cyprus until 1960.
In 1960, Turkey, Cyprus and Greece as guarantor was founded in England.
This republic was not long lasting and lasting. Because the Greek Cypriots
continued their Enosis initiatives and hundreds of Turkish Cypriots were
murdered by Greek Cypriots. One of the guarantor states Turkey, Turkish
Cypriots to recover in 1963, 1964 and made attempts in 1967. These initiatives
prevented the planned massacre by the Greek Cypriots and saved thousands of
Turkish Cypriot lives. If Turkey is to save Turkish Cypriots 1963, 1964 and
Turkish Cypriots was Finding initiatives in 1967, it would be destroyed by the
1974, the military junta in Greece, the pro-Enosis pro-EOKA-B organized a coup,
and the president of Makarois was overthrown and brought to the head of the
Nikos Sampson state by the EOKA leaders. In 1974, President Makarios was
overthrown by the junta leadership in Greece with a pro-Enosis pro-EOKA-B
organization in Cyprus, and Nikos Sampson, head of the EOKA leadership, was
brought to the presidency. Turkey this coup, was regarded as an attempt to join
the island to Greece. According to Zürich and London agreements, Britain, which
is the third guarantor state, declared the right to intervene to protect the
Turks on the island. The talks held in London, England, Turkey opposed the use
of the right to intervene. When Joseph Sisco, the mediator sent by the US,
applied to the policy of distraction, it seemed necessary to remove troops from
the island to protect the Turkish presence in Cyprus. At the end of this peace
operation, the life safety of the Turkish Cypriots was ensured.
my personal opinion in this case, the protection of the citizen – the
importance of regional security circle,geopolitical position and of course
saving and respect their cultures comes to the forefront. The most important
result in terms of Operation Turkey, the Turkish people and its commitment to
international agreements had proved to be an obstacle to initiatives that
jeopardize the security of the Turkish Cypriot people with their own security. The
gathering of the Turkish Cypriot people in a region, the provision of security;
They created opportunities for the Turkish people to improve their economies,
social and cultural life that they could not afford to develop under the siege
they lived for 11 years.
on the basis of good neighborly foreign policy, was separated from the concept
of peace and commerce. He’s adhering to these principles. However, it has also
moved towards a more active foreign policy as a result of world conditions. He
showed that he was an important actor in world affairs, regional affairs. He
made clear statements in regional affairs and did not hesitate to use force
when necessary. Recently, the Western alliance, NATO, the European Union is
developing more close relations with Russia.
tensions experienced by some countries. There was a period of tension with
Russia. The crisis that was experienced after the fall of the Russian plane was
overcome. Binary associations sat on the old track. The crisis with Germany is
also softening. In the past days, the two foreign ministers had a warm
conversation. Again, the Netherlands, which is experiencing a crisis, has
recently announced intentions of mutual good relations. Sometimes there
may be such tensions between countries. But Turkey is “a step towards us
if we assign the more, saying,” it remains resolute stance on fix broken
relationships.Another recent period tracked changes in Turkey’s foreign policy
in Somalia in Myanmar, is to demonstrate the presence and with the help and
support forces in remote areas of the country.
summary, Turkish foreign policy has changed in recent years due to changes in
world and regional conditions. But the basic principles remained the same. He
did not hesitate to use force when necessary and to join alliances in regional
disputes. While there was a distance from NATO and the European Union, there
was rapprochement with Russia. Good relations with China were also developed. A
foreign country’s foreign policy should be linked to the principles of peace,
good neighborliness and trade for both itself and others. Turkey is watching
these principles. It reflects its purpose with attitudes it receives.